Dogwood Clearwing Borer
Head: Black, including top of head. Eyes surrounded with silver-white. White to yellow hair on face. Back of head has white hair at each side, middle yellow or bald. Nose cone (palpi) yellow, last segment black on male; female entirely yellow.
Antenna: Long, black. Base (scape) yellow on underside.
Thorax: Black with a yellow stripe down each side. May have some yellow on shoulders (humeri) and on thorax side under wing.
Wings: Both front and hind wing transparent with brown margins. The hindwing margin may be visible through to the front wing. Outer (costal) margin sometimes streaked with yellow, more so on female. Dark mark (discal cell) at 2/3 wing length is slightly curved. Wing tip border is paler brown, very wide on both male and female and may have some yellowish streaks, more so on female. Hindwing has the base of outer margin yellow, rest black. No mid-wing mark. All margins narrow.
Legs: Yellow. Front thigh (femora) black with yellow tip. Hind shin (tibiae) has black base and black on last half. Feet yellow.
Abdomen: Black with narrow yellow stripe on segment 2. Male has another narrow stripe on segment 4, somewhat wider at side edges. Female has segment 4 entirely yellow. Female abdomen tip tuft black, rounded, with 4 yellow stripes – one at each side and 2 in the middle. Male abdomen tip has anal tuft flared, black, with slight yellow at each side.
Note: In U.S., females have more yellow stripes.
Size: Male 8 mm long. Female 10 mm. Wingspan 14 to 20 mm.
Habitat: Deciduous forest edges, meadows, orchards.
Food: Uses a large variety of woody plant species including dogwood, oak, plum, cherry and apple, beech, birch, chestnut, dogwood, hawthorn, hazel, bayberry, mountain ash, pine, hickory and pecan. Also found on nine-bark Physocarpus, and galls (especially oak).
Flight Time: All Season May to September.
Life Cycle: One generations per year in Ontario. Eggs are laid in damaged parts of plants. Overwinters as a larva in tunnels, pupating in same tunnels next spring. Pupation takes 25 days. Larva are creamy-white with large brown heads. Can be a pest in apple orchards.
Parasite: Braconid Wasp Pseudapanteles sessiae
Comments: Fairly common in central Ontario apple orchards. Leamington, Essex County in 2015-16.
For information on synonyms, references and type specimens see next page