Hemerobius stigma

Brown Lacewing
Hemerobius stigma

Brown Lacewing Hemerobius stigma
Brown Lacewing Hemerobius stigma at moth light July 12, 2013 Wheatley, Ontario.
Brown Lacewing Hemerobius stigma
Brown Lacewing Hemerobius stigma at moth light Oct 04, 2012 Wheatley, Ontario.
Brown Lacewing Hemerobius stigma
Brown Lacewing Hemerobius stigma at moth light Sep 16, 2012 Wheatley, Ontario.
Brown Lacewing Hemerobius stigma
Brown Lacewing Hemerobius stigma at moth light Sep 16, 2012 Wheatley, Ontario.
Brown Lacewing Hemerobius stigma
Brown Lacewing Hemerobius stigma at moth light Oct 02, 2013. Wheatley, Ontario.

Identification:
Head: Head reddish-brown, shiny. Eyes dark brown. Top of head may be somewhat lighter.
Antenna: Long, yellow ringed with dark.
Thorax: Dark reddish-brown, shiny. Neck (pronotum) may have a faint, pale stripe down center.
Wings: Light reddish-brown to yellowish-brown. Veins dotted with cream-colour dots that appear raised or bubble-like along the veins. Stigma at end of costal area has a reddish tint.
Legs: Yellowish-brown, feet slightly darker.
Abdomen: Dark yellowish-brown abdomen. No marks.

Main ID: Veins dotted with cream-colour dots that appear raised or bubble-like along the veins.

Similar Species: The Striped Brown Lacewing Hemerobius humulinus has shorter antenna, yellow thorax, dark patches on the wings and obvious stripe from eyes continuing down sides of neck (pronotum).

Size: 8 to 11 mm to wing tip.

Flight Time: April to May, again September to October.

Habitat: Forests and orchards. Prefers coniferous forests – especially pine.

Food: Prefers the balsam twig aphid Mindarus abietinus in Christmas tree plantations, also Woolly aphid Adelges piceae and Pine Bark Aphid Pineus strobi.

Life Cycle: This species has either two generations, or it hibernates as an adult during the summer. Also over-winters as an adult or pre-pupa. In early spring, the adults mate and eggs are deposited about two weeks later. The adult females and the eggs are extremely cold-tolerant (Garland 1981b). Eggs are laid singly, on fir needles or between bud scales. Eggs hatch in about 11 days, depending on the temperature.
Parasite: Gall Wasp Anacharis species.

Comments: Essex County – Point Pelee. Kent County – Rondeau Provincial Park.

For information on synonyms, references and type specimens see next page

Hemerobius humulinus

Striped Brown Lacewing
Hemerobius humulinus

 

Striped Brown Lacewing Hemerobius humulinus
Striped Brown Lacewing Hemerobius humulinus came to moth lights May 02, 2012. Wheatley, Ontario.
Striped Brown Lacewing Hemerobius humulinus
Striped Brown Lacewing Hemerobius humulinus came to moth lights May 02, 2012. Wheatley, Ontario.
Striped Brown Lacewing Hemerobius humulinus
Striped Brown Lacewing Hemerobius humulinus came to moth lights Oct 05, 2011. Wheatley, Ontario.
Striped Brown Lacewing Hemerobius humulinus
Striped Brown Lacewing Hemerobius humulinus came to moth lights Sept 04, 2013. Wheatley, Ontario.

Identification:
Head: Yellowish-white with a dark stripe behind eyes, extending to collar (pronotum).
Antenna: Long – to mid-wing. Whitish, faintly ringed with dark brown, very tip dark is usually not visible.
Thorax: Yellowish-white with dark stripe on each side of collar (pronotum) from back of eye.
Wings: Wings clear to light tan, with intermittent flecks of brown. Base of wings has a dark patch. Two slanted dark stripes, one mid-wing with a dark patch at top wing edge, and the other, usually incomplete near wing tip. Stripes can sometimes be faded.
Legs: Uniformly yellowish-white.
Abdomen: Yellowish with dark brown to black spots on each side. Lighter on underside.

Main ID: Dark stripe down each side of neck from eye to thorax.

Size: 10 mm long.

Flight Time: March to April; again from Sept to Oct.

Habitat: Deciduous trees, apple orchards.

Food: Both adults and larvae are predators of soft-bodied insects like mites, mealy bugs and aphids.

Life Cycle: The Striped Brown Lacewing is predominant in apple orchards in southern Ontario. One of the earliest to fly in spring, and the last to leave in the fall. Females lay hundreds of whitish eggs on fruit buds, leaves and in bark crevices. Eggs are not stalked (on a foot pad or pulvillus) like green lacewings. Hatching occurs in about 5 days. Larvae, sometimes called aphid wolves, are light brown with reddish-brown stripes and spots. Three instars or molts, they mature from 11 to 22 days. The larvae stay in debris on the ground, or on plants, usually carrying bits of debris on their back. They can over-winters as adults, mature larvae, or hibernate in a loose net-like, see-through dome cocoon. Several generations in spring, and again in the fall.

Comments: Essex County – Ojibway Prairies. Kent County – Rondeau Provincial Park.

For information on synonyms, references and type specimens see next page

Brown Lacewings Hemerobiidae

Brown Lacwings
Hemerobiidae

Identification: Similar to Green Lacewings (Chrysopidae). Brown lacewings are smaller, wings more rounded and somewhat hairy at wing edges. Veins at wing edges are more numerous and branched.

Size: 6-15 mm

Life Cycle: Females lay between 30 to 40 eggs (not stalked like Green Lacewings), singly on leaves, twigs or bark. Both adults and larvae eat smaller insects, particularly aphids and mealy bugs. Liquid food is drawn up through mandibles on larvae. Adults have chewing mouth parts. Larvae do not cover themselves with aphid debris, like Green lacewings. Short larval period from 12 to 24 days with 3 instars, the 3 being the longest and sometimes lasting 3 weeks. Several broods lasting from spring to fall. Cocoon structures are net-like, see-through rounded domes. Green lacewing cocoon are white and solid.

Seventeen species of Brown Lacewings are listed for Ontario. Over half of them are extremely rare and northern.

The common species in southern Ontario (7):
Hemerobius humulinus – Striped Brown Lacewing
Hemerobius stigma
Micromus posticus
Micromus subanticus
Psectra diptera
Sympherobius amiculus
Sympherobius occidentalis

Northern Ontario species (10):
Hemerobius conjunctus – Sudbury, Ottawa and north
Hemerobius costalis – Dryden and north
Hemerobius dorsatus – Hudson Bay
Hemerobius simulans – Type specimen from Hudson Bay (report of  1 in Ottawa & Niagara)
Megalomus angulatus – Sudbury and north
Megalomus fidelis – Sudbury and north
Micromus angulatus – Ottawa
Wesmaelius longifrons – Ottawa area, Georgian Bay and north
Wesmaelius nervosus – unknown. Present in B.C. Lectotype from New Hampshire
Wesmaelius subnebulosus – Belleville (eastern Ontario).

Myrmeleon immaculatus

Common Antlion
Myrmeleon immaculatus

Common Antlion, Myrmeleon immaculatus nymph
Common Antlion Myrmeleon immaculatus nymph, travelling backwards, looking for a place to make a cocoon and spend the winter. Wheatley, Ontario Nov 05, 2006.
Common Antlion Myrmeleon immaculatus nymph
Common Antlion Myrmeleon immaculatus nymph throwing sand in process of making a sandpit trap to catch insects. Wheatley, Ontario, Oct 02, 2005.
Common Antlion Myrmeleon immaculatus
Common Antlion Myrmeleon immaculatus on tuliptree leaf. July 29, 2016, Wheatley, Ontario.
Common Antlion Myrmeleon immaculatus
Common Antlion Myrmeleon immaculatus on composter bin, near moth light at night. July 19, 2011. Wheatley, Ontario.
Common Antlion Myrmeleon immaculatus nymph
Common Antlion Myrmeleon immaculatus nymph, travelling backwards, looking for a place to make a cocoon and spend the winter. Wheatley, Ontario Nov 05, 2006.

Identification:
Head: Face is shiny, grayish to dark brown with green eyes and a yellow stripe at the back of the eye.
Antenna: Dark, including clubs at tip.
Thorax: Neck (pronotum) grayish with a pair of faint yellowish spots at each corner nearest head. Thorax grayish.
Wings: Wings net-like with black and some white veins. A row of alternating and uneven black and white dashes inset from the outer or lower wing border. The female also has a small white patch (stigma) near the wing tip; patch on the male can be smaller or absent.
Legs: Upper legs light yellowish-white, lower legs dark with some light patches.
Abdomen: The female has each abdominal segment dark gray at base, turning dark brown with a light stripe at lower border of segment. Male abdomen is dark brown with light stripe at lower border of each segment. Male abdomen is longer than the female’s, but still does not reach to wing tips.

Size: 35 to 40 mm long. Larva 8 to 12 mm long.

Flight Time: Late June and July.

Habitat: Dry sandy areas.

Food: Ants and other small insects that slide into sand pits.

Life Cycle: Mating lasts nearly two hours. After separation the female cleans up by feeding on the remaining spermatophore. Females drop eggs in bare, sandy areas. Larvae, called Doodlebugs, only walk backwards. They dig perfectly round, cone-shaped holes in the sand and bury themselves at the bottom of the pit. They feed on ants and other insects that slide into the pit. The victim is injected with a liquid that disintegrates their innards which are then sucked up through the huge, hollow jaws of the Antlion. Antlions know enough not to eat the formic acid sac in the ant’s abdomen. Larva are not fully developed until between September and November, depending on weather. The larva bury themselves in the soil and form a round silken cocoon from silk glands at the tip of the abdomen. Adults are night flyers.

Comments: Essex County – Point Pelee National Park, Lake Erie Islands, Ojibway Prairies. Kent County – Rondeau Provincial Park.
Around the Great Lakes area, Antlions are also preyed upon by Bee Flies Anthrax species that lay their eggs in the sand pits of the Doodlebug larva.

For information on synonyms, references and type specimens see next page

Dendroleon obsoletus

Spot-winged Antlion
Dendroleon obsoletus

Spot-winged Antlion Dendroleon obsoletus
Spot-winged Antlion Dendroleon obsoletus came to moth light, Wheatley, Ontario, July 28, 2006.
Spot-winged Antlion Dendroleon obsoletus
Spot-winged Antlion Dendroleon obsoletus came to moth light at Wheatley, Ontario, July 21, 2012.
Spot-winged Antlion Dendroleon obsoletus
Spot-winged Antlion Dendroleon obsoletus came to moth light at Wheatley, Ontario, July 21, 2012.

Identification:
Antenna have a dark base and dark clubs at tips. Mid area of antenna are orangish. Legs are all dark and thin. Both front and hind wings have conspicuous black or brownish-black circular spots and dashes. Newly emerged adults have very faint spots. Male and female abdomens are the same length – shorter than wings.

Size: 50 mm long. Larva 8 to 12 mm long.

Flight Time: July and August.

Habitat: Wooded areas. Larvae live in dry tree holes and prefer Oaks Quercus.  

Food: Larva feed on soft-bodied insects.

Life Cycle: Lay eggs in late summer in dry tree holes, particularly Oak Quercus. Larvae have been found in fine organic matter, with their legs holding balls of this solid substrate. The winter is usually spent in larva stage in hibernation. Pupate in cocoon spun with silken threads. Adults live only a few weeks. Life cycle is not well-known and larva may spend 1 to 3 years before maturing. Larvae are able to survive long periods of famine by reducing their metabolism.

Comments: Rare. Kent County – Rondeau Provincial Park. Not recorded for Essex County. In Middlesex County per BugGuide; also in Michigan.

For information on synonyms, references and type specimens see next page

Brachynemurus nebulosus

Clouded Antlion
Brachynemurus nebulosus

 

Clouded Antlion Brachynemurus nebulosus male
Clouded Antlion Brachynemurus nebulosus male at Point Pelee National Park, Leamington, Ontario.
Clouded Antlion Brachynemurus nebulosus male
Clouded Antlion Brachynemurus nebulosus male on Grape leaf at Point Pelee National Park, Leamington, Ontario.

Note: Both photos of males found at Point Pelee National Park, Leamington, Ontario. 

Identification:
Head: Head dark, small; some yellow around antenna bases.
Antenna: Black, thick; only slightly clubbed.
Thorax: Neck (pronotum) narrow with 3 vague yellowish marks or streaks. Thorax dark with obscure yellowish to white marks.
Wings: Wings dark with small darker random spots (not in rows). Some of the wing veins are white, forming U-shapes, especially near the lower (outer) border of the wings. White stigma or spot nearer to wing tip on outside edge.
Legs: Short, pale yellow, speckled with black. Feet black.
Abdomen: Female abdomen dark, extending to wing tip. Male abdomen is slender, longer than wings, but not twice as long. Both have yellowish interrupted rings on base half, and yellowish dots or dashes on last half.

Similar Species:
The Snap-trap B. abdominalis has white dashes, not U-shaped between black dots on two rows.
B. longicaudus has evenly-sized black spots; male abdomen unmistakable – twice as long as wings.
B. signatus has black-veined, completely unmarked wings.

Size: Female 27, male 40 mm long. Larvae 13 mm.

Flight Time: June and July

Habitat: Sandy areas near ant nests.

Food: Larva feed on ants and other small insects.

Life Cycle: Larva are reddish, lower abdomen white with two black longitudinal stripes. They do not dig pits, but run across the sand and then dig a long channel, or bury themselves just beneath soil surface; usually near or on ant nests. Prey is grabbed by the mandibles and dragged backward until both are completely covered with sand. Pupa is a silken cocoon, covered with grains of dust.

Comments: Essex County – Point Pelee species list. Kent County – Rondeau Prov. Park species list Oct, 2009. Also Bosanquet Township.

For information on synonyms, references and type specimens see next page

Fishfly Nigronia fasciata

Banded Fishfly

Fishfly Nigronia fasciata
Banded Fishfly Nigronia fasciata female in New Brunswick Jun 12, 2011.
Banded Fishfly Nigronia fasciata
Banded Fishfly Nigronia fasciata female in New Brunswick Jun 12, 2011.

 

Identification:
Note: Although present in Ontario, these photos of a female were taken in New Brunswick.

Head: Dark brown with some reddish-brown streaks at back of head. Simple eyes (ocelli) smaller. Cheeks and underside on mouth brick-red. Mandibles brown, base yellowish.
Antenna: Black, feathered (flabellate) on both sides on male, knife-like (serrate) on female.
Thorax: Neck (pronotum) as wide as long; dark brown with some reddish-brown streaks and darker spots; rest of thorax dark brown.
Wings: Wings are dark brown with an evenly wide white stripe mid wing, and white spots near wing tip. Hind wings dark brown; base has a large rounded white spot, a wide mid wing white stripe, and white spots near wing tip. Male brighter colored.
Legs: Brown, feet darker.
Abdomen: Abdomen black, with lighter patterned areas.

Main ID: Evenly wide white stripe across middle of front wings.

Similar Species: N. serricornis has a much narrower and very uneven mid-wing white stripe; no stripe on hind wing.

Size: 30 to 40 mm. Larva 26 to 33 mm.

Flight Time: June

Habitat: Small streams with sandy bottoms and few rocks; and good water quality.

Food: Larvae feed on smaller aquatic animals. Adults may feed on nectar – drink sugar water in the lab.

Life Cycle: Females lay large egg masses in the afternoon from May to early June on the underside of leaves of branches over-hanging streams. After hatching (14 days), larvae drop into the water and feed on Isopoda (most), Caddisflies (2nd most), Diptera, Ephemeroptera, Megaloptera, and will resort to cannibalism. Respiratory tube on the 8th segment is long, extending to legs and unlike the short tube on Nigronia serricornis. Life cycle two to three years. Larvae pupate at water’s edge, under rocks or moss in spring for about 3 weeks. Pupa can be identified by wing pads – wide white band is N. fasciatus. Narrow white band is N. serricornis. When disturbed C. fasciata curls its body to the side while N. serricornis forms a circle with head touching abdomen tip. Adults live about a week.
One report of Biting Midges (Punkies) Ceratopogon fusicornis feeding on a live adult.

Comments: Northern Ontario – Leeds/Greenville and Barrie. Also Northern Michigan and New Brunswick. Of the two species present in Ontario, N. fasciata more common in northern Ontario and N. serricornis is more common in the south.

For information on synonyms, references and type specimens see next page