Bombus auricomus

Black and Gold Bumblebee
Bombus auricomus

Black & Gold Bumblebee Bombus auricomus queen
Black & Gold Bumblebee Bombus auricomus queen on Obedient Plant or False Dragonhead, Sep 02, 2012 Wheatley, Ontario.
Black & Gold Bumblebee Bombus auricomus worker
Black & Gold Bumblebee Bombus auricomus worker on Everlasting Pea Jul 08, 2013 Wheatley, Ontario.
Black & Gold Bumblebee Bombus auricomus queen
Black & Gold Bumblebee Bombus auricomus queen on Obedient Plant or False Dragonhead, Sep 02, 2012 Wheatley, Ontario.
Black & Gold Bumblebee Bombus auricomus worker
Black & Gold Bumblebee Bombus auricomus worker on Hyssop Aug 21, 2012 Wheatley, Ontario.
Black & Gold Bumblebee Bombus auricomus worker
Black & Gold Bumblebee Bombus auricomus worker on pants Jul 21, 2006 Wheatley, Ontario.
Black & Gold Bumblebee Bombus auricomus worker
Black & Gold Bumblebee Bombus auricomus worker on Everlasting Pea Jul 08, 2009 Wheatley, Ontario.

Identification: The female has abdominal segments 2 and 3 yellow. Segment 1 is black but usually has yellow at side edges. The male has segments 1 to 3 yellow.
Queen and Worker:
Head: Face entirely black with a band of yellow hairs across back of head.
Thorax: Base of thorax yellow; a wide black stripe between wing knobs with the lower border forming a V-shape at centre. Lower thorax has yellow erect hairs on each side of black V-shape.
Wings: Wing knobs reddish-black. Wings black, a bit lighter at tips.
Legs: Legs and hair entirely black.
Abdomen: Abdomen segment 1 narrow, black; some yellow at side edges. Segments 2 and 3 are yellow; remainder of segments black. Segment 2 is wide.

Male:
Head: Face has short, yellow hair with some black in centre of face. Top of head has short yellowish hairs. Eyes are large.
Thorax: Base of thorax yellow; a wide black stripe between wing knobs with the lower border forming a V-shape at centre. Lower thorax has yellow erect hairs on each side of black V-shape.
Wings: Wing knobs reddish-black. Wings are uniformly dark, but not as dark as the female.
Legs: Hair gray to blackish. Tops of legs with very fine, pale grayish hairs. Note: Males do not have the characteristic bright yellow fringe on underside of thighs (femora).
Abdomen: Segments 1 to 3 entirely yellow with a slight reddish tint. Segments 4 to 7 black, the hairs longer and erect.

Similar Species: American Bumblebee Bombus pensylvanicus female resembles the male B. auricomus but has very little yellow fringe on lower thorax or on head. Worn workers with lower thorax yellow hairs missing can easily be mistaken for B. pensylvanicus, and best ID’d by abdominal stripes – B. pensylvanicus has segments 1 to 3 yellow.

Size: Queen 20 to 25 mm.Worker 18 to 20 mm – large for worker. Male 17 to 20 mm.

Flight Time: Late June to early September.

Habitat: Meadows, forest edges.

Food: Pollen & nectar from a wide variety of flowers.

Life Cycle: Hibernating queens appear in spring and establish underground colonies in old mouse nests or other cavities. Queens lay their eggs in separate cells. Hatched larvae are continually fed by the queen until they pupate. After this group of workers emerge as adults, they take over feeding the larvae. Nests usually have between 30 to 50 workers. Only mated females over-winter, hibernating in sheltered locations until the next spring.

Comments: Essex County – Ojibway Prairies, Point Pelee and Pelee Island. The Black and Gold Bumblebee Bombus auricomus is a southern bumblebee, at the northern limits of its range in Ontario.

Mantidfly Dicromantispa sayi

Mantidfly
Dicromantispa sayi

Mantidfly Dicromantispa sayi female prey Common Pug Eupithecia miserulata
Mantidfly Dicromantispa sayi female at moth light feeding on Common Pug Eupithecia miserulata July 26, 2013 Wheatley, Ontario
Mantidfly Dicromantispa sayi female
Mantidfly Dicromantispa sayi female at moth light July 26, 2013 Wheatley, Ontario
Mantidfly Dicromantispa sayi female
Mantidfly Dicromantispa sayi female at moth light July 26, 2013 Wheatley, Ontario
Mantidfly Dicromantispa sayi female
Mantidfly Dicromantispa sayi female at moth light July 26, 2013 Wheatley, Ontario
Mantidfly Dicromantispa sayi
Mantidfly Dicromantispa sayi female at moth light July 26, 2013 Wheatley, Ontario

Identification:
Head: Brown to black with pale yellow marks. Face has a longitudinal yellow stripe each side of centre; middle dark area appearing as a dark stripe, sometimes incomplete. Pattern of yellow oblong spots on top of head; can be obscure. Eyes multi-colored.
Antenna: Brown except segment 1 yellowish, more so on underside.
Thorax: Neck (prothorax) long and slender, more cone-shaped at head. Cream-colored patch at base and end of neck; rest yellowish-brown to dark brown. Usually with a light or dark coloured longitudinal stripe down centre. Thorax side on female dark with cream, curved lines. Male sides mostly pale.
Wings: Wings clear with brown veins; no brown spots at wing tips. Base and outside edge of wings dark brown (costal area), with a faint yellowish streak. Stigma at end of costa also dark brown.
Legs: Front legs modified, similar to praying mantis; dark brown with light streaks. Usually folded up and not used, except for eating. Mid and hind legs pale yellow with brown streaks; females have joint to body (coxae) brown; male coxae pale.
Abdomen: Yellowish-brown to dark brown with yellow marks. Female abdomen always darker, and may be entirely black; the yellow marks vary considerably. Abdomen side edges cream, almost entirely on male, more spotted on female.

Similar Species: Dicromantispa interrupta is a larger species with a dark patch near tip of wing. Leptomantispa pulchella has side-by-side (paired) yellow stripes of even width running down sides of abdomen, whereas D. sayi has uneven width pattern down sides. L. pulchella also has a bright, burnt orange stigma on wings, not brown as in D. sayi. Otherwise, these two are identical.

Size: 14 to 15 mm long.

Habitat: Forest edges and prairies where spiders are present.

Food: Adults feed on small flying insects. Fed moths and flies under lab conditions. Larvae hunt for just about any species spider eggs, but major hosts are Wolf and Hunting spiders Lycosidae, and Running Crab Spider Philodromus vulgaris.

Flight Time: Jul 15 to Sep 4th. Peaks end of July

Life Cycle: Females lay eggs on any substrate. Larvae hatch, wander, find and either penetrate wolf spider egg sacs, or hitch a ride on adult female spiders ready to lay eggs. 1st instar over-winters. One generation per year.

Comments: Essex County – Point Pelee, Ojibway, Harrow. Kent County – Rondeau Provincial Park. At one time D. sayi was thought to be found only along the north shore of Lake Erie, but range has expanded to include Lake Simcoe and the north shore of Lake Ontario to the Quebec border.

For information on synonyms, references and type specimens see next page

Chrysopa oculata

Goldeneye Lacewing
Chrysopa oculata

Goldeneye Green Lacewing Chrysopa oculata face
Goldeneye Green Lacewing Chrysopa oculata face at moth lights July 12, 2011, Wheatley, Ontario.
Goldeneye Green Lacewing Chrysopa oculata
Goldeneye Green Lacewing Chrysopa oculata at moth lights Oct. 02, 2013, Wheatley, Ontario.
Goldeneye Green Lacewing Chrysopa oculata
Goldeneye Green Lacewing Chrysopa oculata at moth lights July 13, 2013, Wheatley, Ontario.
Goldeneye Green Lacewing Chrysopa oculata
Goldeneye Green Lacewing Chrysopa oculata on a Goldenrod leaf, Jun 21-09, Wheatley, Ontario.
Goldeneye Green Lacewing Chrysopa oculata
Goldeneye Green Lacewing Chrysopa oculata on a log Wheatley Provincial Park May 31, 2005 Wheatley, Ontario.
Goldeneye Green Lacewing Chrysopa oculata larva
Goldeneye Green Lacewing Chrysopa oculata larva on watermelon Aug 07-09 Wheatley, Ontario.

Identification:
Head: Face mostly reddish with reddish-black dots, sometimes merging to stripes. Antenna bases surrounded with reddish-black lines, forming a square. Eyes bronze-golden. Whiskers (palpi) striped black and white. Top of head pale yellowish with 4 large reddish-black dots, sometimes merging into two lines.
Antenna: Base (scape) swollen, yellowish with reddish base, black tip. Segments yellowish, becoming darker near tips.
Thorax: Neck (pronotum) greenish with vague, small dark spots on thorax, not in a row.
Wings: Pale green, veins with varying amounts of black, mostly near base of wing and along costal edge.
Legs: Pale green to yellowish. Feet darker.
Abdomen: Pale green.

Main ID: Reddish face with golden eyes.

Similar Species: Chrysopa chi has 4 obvious black marks in a row on neck, face green.

Size: 15 to 22 mm.

Flight Time: May to July; September to October

Habitat: Forest edges, fields, roadside ditches, open areas and apple orchards.

Food: Both adults and larvae feed primarily on the green apple aphid and other soft-bodied tiny insects.

Life Cycle: Overwinters as a pupa in a silken cocoon in the soil. Females can lay up to 700 eggs during their life span. When irritated, it diffuses a strong offensive odour, similar to that of human excrement.

Comments: Essex County – Point Pelee National park and Ojibway Prairies. Kent County – Rondeau Provincial Park.

For information on synonyms, references and type specimens see next page

Chrysopa chi

 

Green Lacewing
Chrysopa chi

Green Lacewing Chrysopa chi
Green Lacewing Chrysopa chi from New Brunswick, Jun 12, 2011.

Identification:
Head: Green with a black X between antenna bases, similar to Greek letter chi. 2 black marks each side of mouth area, and two behind each eye.
Antenna: Base (scape) greenish with some obscure black at tip. Segments yellowish, becoming dusky near tips. No black on 2nd segment.
Thorax: Neck (pronotum) has a series of 4 wide, large black spots down each side. Thorax also has 2 spots at base and 4 more spots across mid thorax.
Wings: Narrow, long, tips rounded. Cross-veins all black. Hind wings green.
Legs: Pale greenish; feet light brownish-yellow.
Abdomen: Greenish, discoloured with brown.

Main ID: Unmistakable with the series of 4 wide, large black marks on each side of the neck (pronotum), and a black “X” between the eyes.

Size: 17 mm to wing tip.

Flight Time: May to August.

Habitat: Prefers conifer forests, but also found in deciduous forests near water, on Birch, Poplar and Willow.

Food: Both adults and larvae prey on soft-bodies insects such as aphids.

Life Cycle: Larva carry bits of leaves and trash on their backs. Eggs are stalked.

Comments: Ontario – Guelph and all of northern Ontario.

For information on synonyms, references and type specimens see next page

Green Lacewings Chrysopidae

Green Lacewing
Chrysopidae

Identification: Similar to Brown Lacewings Hemerobiidae. Green Lacewings are larger, with much longer wings. There is not much variation in wing veins among all the species. However, some species do have black cross-veins.

Size: 12 to 20 mm

Life Cycle:
Females create a long, thin stem or stalk and place an egg on the tip of the stalk. The eggs are laid in a straight row and appear almost like teeth in a comb. Larvae use mandibles to suck juices from insects, mostly aphids. After consuming an aphid, the larva will cover itself with the leftovers, or use other debris. Adults have chewing mouth parts and eat the same foods as the larvae.
Green Lacewings have sensors in the large veins of their wings and are attuned to vibrations like bat radar. They also make elaborate vibrations during courtship, using their abdomens and wings.

Thirteen species of Green Lacewings are listed for Ontario. The common species in southern Ontario (5):
Chrysopa nigricornis
Chrysopa oculata
Chrysopa quadripunctata
Chrysoperla carnea
Chrysoperla rufilabris

More northern Ontario species (8):
Ceraeochrysa lineaticornis – Ottawa and north; 1 found in Simcoe.
Chrysopa chi – Guelph to northern and eastern Ontario
Chrysoperla harrisii – Toronto and north; 1 found in Chatham (Kent County).
Kymachrysa (Chrysopodes) placita – Eastern Ontario (Belleville); type specimen from Toronto.
Dichochrysa macleodi­ – Lambton County (Pinery) and north.
Eremochrysa canadensis – Georgian Bay; type specimen from Go Home Bay.
Meleoma emuncta – Hamilton and north.
Meleoma signoretti – Lambton County (Pinery) and north.

Micromus posticus

Brown Lacewing
Micromus posticus

Brown Lacewing Micromus posticus
Brown Lacewing Micromus posticus on curtain in house, Nov 02, 2011 Wheatley, Ontario.
Brown Lacewing Micromus posticus
Brown Lacewing Micromus posticus at moth light, July 08, 2011 Wheatley, Ontario.
Brown Lacewing Micromus posticus
Brown Lacewing Micromus posticus at moth light, July 08, 2011 Wheatley, Ontario.

Identification:
Head: Light reddish-brown to yellowish. No dark marks.
Antenna: Yellowish-white. Tips slightly darker.
Thorax: Light reddish-brown with a few light spots.
Wings: Light with dark flecks, darker at base; almost checkered along upper (inside) border. Two thin diagonal dark lines, one mid-wing and one nearer wing tip which has another line jutting off at a right angle, sometimes touching the first diagonal line. Veins pale yellowish-brown with dark flecks.
Legs: Pale yellowish, toes darker. Front and mid shins (tibiae) may have one or two faint dark bands on each leg.
Abdomen: Dark reddish-brown.

Similar Species: Micromus subanticus has longer, narrower wings and a dark mark on each side of the face. Micromus angulatus has three diagonal stripes, two with right angles off them.

Size: 6 to 9 mm to wing tip.

Flight Time: March and April, again in July to November.

Habitat: Forest edges, both deciduous and conifer; meadows.

Food: Aphids and other soft-bodied insects.

Life Cycle: Females can lay up to approximately 60 eggs per day. . Larvae have 3 instars. Larva do not cover themselves with debris. Adults live about 3 weeks. Assumed that adults over-winter.  4 to 5 generations per year.
Parasites: Ichneumon Wasp Charitopes mellicornis

Comments: Essex County – Point Pelee National Park, Erie Islands and Ojibway Prairies. Kent County – Rondeau Provincial Park. LaSage in Biodiversity Data Journal, 2013, Vol. 1 believes M. posticus is rare. Only 23 specimens collected in Ontario in the last 100 years.

For information on synonyms, references and type specimens see next page

Micromus subanticus

Brown Lacewing
Micromus subanticus

Brown Lacewing Micromus subanticus
Brown Lacewing Micromus subanticus at moth light May 26, 2012 Wheatley, Ontario.
Brown Lacewing Micromus subanticus
Brown Lacewing Micromus subanticus at moth light May 08, 2012 Wheatley, Ontario.
Brown Lacewing Micromus subanticus
Brown Lacewing Micromus subanticus at moth light June 08, 2012 Wheatley, Ontario.
Brown Lacewing Micromus subanticus
Brown Lacewing Micromus subanticus at moth light July 06, 2011. Wheatley, Ontario.
Brown Lacewing Micromus subanticus
Brown Lacewing Micromus subanticus at moth light July 06, 2011. Wheatley, Ontario.
Brown Lacewing Micromus subanticus
Brown Lacewing Micromus subanticus at moth light July 19, 2011. Wheatley, Ontario.

Identification:
Head: Face long, reddish-yellow with a dark mark on each side of centre, mid face. Some brownish shading on top of head.
Antenna: Pale yellowish.
Thorax: Neck (prothorax) and thorax brownish-yellow. Older individuals darker, or with brownish spots.
Wings: Very narrow, 4 times as long as wide, tips blunt. A central dark spot about 1/3 from wing base. A series of 4 or 5 faint, darker marks on veins nearer wing tip. No other marks.
Legs: Pale yellowish.
Abdomen: Light brown, covered with brown pile.

Main ID: Long, reddish-yellow face with dark, curved mark between eyes and mouth on each side. Long, narrow wings.

Similar Species: Micromus angulatus and Micromus posticus both have shorter, wider wings and obvious diagonal lines in the wings. Neither have dark marks on the face.

Size: 7 to 9 mm to wing tip.

Habitat: Meadows and grassy areas.

Food: Both adults and larvae are predators of soft-bodied insects, aphids.

Flight Time: June and July.

Life Cycle: Unknown. Usually found in grass clumps where they run rather than fly. Will play dead.
Parasite: Ichneumon Wasp Anacharis species.

Comments: Kent County – Rondeau Provincial Park. Present in Essex County, but not on any list.

For information on synonyms, references and type specimens see next page