Chrysoperla rufilabris

Green Lacewing
Chrysoperla rufilabris

 

Identification:

Green Lacewing Chrysoperla rufilabris came to moth light Oct. 04, 2012. Wheatley, Ontario.
Green Lacewing Chrysoperla rufilabris came to moth light Oct. 04, 2012. Wheatley, Ontario.

Head: Pale green with a pale yellow stripe down whole length of the body. Top of head may have two red dots or an entire line on top of head (vertex). A bright orange-red stripe between eye and mouth area. Mouth reddish. Whiskers (palpi) cream with black stripes.
Antenna: Antenna yellowish, darker toward tips.
Thorax: Pale green with a pale yellow stripe down middle. Neck  (pronotum) may have some black or red on sides, behind eyes.
Wings: Long and narrow with pointed tips. Veins green, but some cross-veins along wing edges may be gray to black – variable.
Legs: Legs very pale green, feet yellowish-white.
Abdomen: Pale green with a pale yellow stripe down middle. Note: Chrysoperla rufilabris also changes colour in the fall if it is associated with deciduous trees and shrubs.

Green Lacewing Chrysoperla rufilabris red colour Mar 13, 2012. Wheatley, Ontario.
Green Lacewing Chrysoperla rufilabris red colour Mar 13, 2012. Wheatley, Ontario.

Similar Species: Chrysoperla carnea or plorabunda has a black mark from eye to mouth area. Antenna are more white.

Size: 12 to 17 mm to wing tip.

Flight Time: Mid-March to October

Habitat: Shrubs, bushes, corn fields, but most abundant in apple orchards.

Food: Larvae feed on aphids, primarily the Green Apple Aphid Aphis pomi.

Green Lacewing Chrysoperla rufilabris larva July 27, 2012. Wheatley, Ontario.
Green Lacewing Chrysoperla rufilabris larva July 27, 2012. Wheatley, Ontario.

Also other small, soft-bodied insects and their eggs. Adults eat pollen, nectar from flowers and honeydew from aphids.
Used as a biological control for the Oriental Fruit Moth Grapholita molesta and European Pine Shoot Moth Rhyacionia buoliana.

Life Cycle: Courtship rituals use abdominal vibrations on twigs or leaves. Females deposit eggs singly, usually on leaf margins. Eggs are elevated on stalks (pulvilli). Larvae have dark stripes on their heads and feed on smaller insects (usually aphids), packing left-over body parts on their backs. Larvae also play dead. The cocoon is net-like, snow-white. Adults are attracted to lights at night. Adults overwinter. 3 to 4 generations per year. If associated with deciduous trees, adults may turn reddish-brown in the fall to the next spring.
Larvae and cocoons are parasitized by Chalcid Wasp Perilampus chrysopae.

Comments: Essex County – Ojibway Prairies. Kent County – Rondeau Provincial Park. Widespread across Ontario and Quebec.

For information on synonyms, references and type specimens see next page

Chrysoperla carnea – plorabunda

Green Lacewing
Chrysoperla carnea/plorabunda

 

Identification:

Head: Pale green to yellowish with a white to cream stripe from the head to abdomen. Shiny, short black stripe between lower eye margin and mouth area. The black line is consistent in all sub-species, but stripe is wider in northern populations. Mouth area very pale reddish-yellow, not well defined. Eyes green, reflecting light into changeable colours. Whiskers (palpi) white with black line along outer sides.
Antenna: Base (scape) greenish-white. Segments white, become pale dull yellow near tips. Thorax: Green with a white to cream stripe along the back. Neck (pronotum) has reddish-brown to black stripe or thin line on each side, behind eyes; or sometimes no marks at all.
Wings: Pale green, including veins and cross-veins. Wing edges have short black hair. Tips more rounded. Wings twice as long as body.
Legs: Legs greenish-whitish, feet tinged with brown.
Abdomen: Pale green with a white to cream stripe down middle.

Similar Species: Chrysoperla rufilabris has a deep red mark from eye to mouth area. Antenna are more yellow, becoming darker near tip.

Size: 12 mm long.

Habitat: Forests, orchards.

Food: Aphids and other small bodied insects.

Flight Time: All season.

Life Cycle: Courtship with matched abdominal drumming. Eggs are stalked (pulvilli). Larva have 3 instars; will play dead. Over-winter as adults. Those adults associated with deciduous trees and shrubs turn reddish-brown (crypsis) in late fall to early spring.

Comments: Essex County – Ojibway Prairies, Harrow, Kingsville, Pelee Island, Point Pelee. Kent County – Rondeau Provincial Park. Wellington County – Guelph.

For information on synonyms, references and type specimens see next page

Chrysopa oculata

Goldeneye Lacewing
Chrysopa oculata

 

Goldeneye Green Lacewing Chrysopa oculata face
Goldeneye Green Lacewing Chrysopa oculata face at moth lights July 12, 2011, Wheatley, Ontario.
Goldeneye Green Lacewing Chrysopa oculata
Goldeneye Green Lacewing Chrysopa oculata on a log Wheatley Provincial Park May 31, 2005 Wheatley, Ontario.
Goldeneye Green Lacewing Chrysopa oculata larva
Goldeneye Green Lacewing Chrysopa oculata larva on watermelon Aug 07-09 Wheatley, Ontario.

Identification:
Head: Face mostly reddish with reddish-black dots, sometimes merging to stripes. Antenna bases surrounded with reddish-black lines, forming a square. Eyes bronze-golden. Whiskers (palpi) striped black and white. Top of head pale yellowish with 4 large reddish-black dots, sometimes merging into two lines.
Antenna: Base (scape) swollen, yellowish with reddish base, black tip. Segments yellowish, becoming darker near tips.
Thorax: Neck (pronotum) greenish with vague, small dark spots on thorax, not in a row.
Wings: Pale green, veins with varying amounts of black, mostly near base of wing and along costal edge.
Legs: Pale green to yellowish. Feet darker.
Abdomen: Pale green.

Main ID: Reddish face with golden eyes.

Similar Species: Chrysopa chi has 4 obvious black marks in a row on neck, face green.

Size: 15 to 22 mm.

Flight Time: May to July; September to October

Habitat: Forest edges, fields, roadside ditches, open areas and apple orchards.

Food: Both adults and larvae feed primarily on the green apple aphid and other soft-bodied tiny insects.

Life Cycle: Overwinters as a pupa in a silken cocoon in the soil. Females can lay up to 700 eggs during their life span. When irritated, it diffuses a strong offensive odour, similar to that of human excrement.

Comments: Essex County – Point Pelee National park and Ojibway Prairies. Kent County – Rondeau Provincial Park.

For information on synonyms, references and type specimens see next page

Chrysopa chi

 

Green Lacewing
Chrysopa chi

Green Lacewing Chrysopa chi
Green Lacewing Chrysopa chi from New Brunswick, Jun 12, 2011.

Identification:
Head: Green with a black X between antenna bases, similar to Greek letter chi. 2 black marks each side of mouth area, and two behind each eye.
Antenna: Base (scape) greenish with some obscure black at tip. Segments yellowish, becoming dusky near tips. No black on 2nd segment.
Thorax: Neck (pronotum) has a series of 4 wide, large black spots down each side. Thorax also has 2 spots at base and 4 more spots across mid thorax.
Wings: Narrow, long, tips rounded. Cross-veins all black. Hind wings green.
Legs: Pale greenish; feet light brownish-yellow.
Abdomen: Greenish, discoloured with brown.

Main ID: Unmistakable with the series of 4 wide, large black marks on each side of the neck (pronotum), and a black “X” between the eyes.

Size: 17 mm to wing tip.

Flight Time: May to August.

Habitat: Prefers conifer forests, but also found in deciduous forests near water, on Birch, Poplar and Willow.

Food: Both adults and larvae prey on soft-bodies insects such as aphids.

Life Cycle: Larva carry bits of leaves and trash on their backs. Eggs are stalked.

Comments: Ontario – Guelph and all of northern Ontario.

For information on synonyms, references and type specimens see next page

Green Lacewings Chrysopidae

Green Lacewing
Chrysopidae

Identification: Similar to Brown Lacewings Hemerobiidae. Green Lacewings are larger, with much longer wings. There is not much variation in wing veins among all the species. However, some species do have black cross-veins.

Size: 12 to 20 mm

Life Cycle:
Females create a long, thin stem or stalk and place an egg on the tip of the stalk. The eggs are laid in a straight row and appear almost like teeth in a comb. Larvae use mandibles to suck juices from insects, mostly aphids. After consuming an aphid, the larva will cover itself with the leftovers, or use other debris. Adults have chewing mouth parts and eat the same foods as the larvae.
Green Lacewings have sensors in the large veins of their wings and are attuned to vibrations like bat radar. They also make elaborate vibrations during courtship, using their abdomens and wings.

Thirteen species of Green Lacewings are listed for Ontario. The common species in southern Ontario (5):
Chrysopa nigricornis
Chrysopa oculata
Chrysopa quadripunctata
Chrysoperla carnea
Chrysoperla rufilabris

More northern Ontario species (8):
Ceraeochrysa lineaticornis – Ottawa and north; 1 found in Simcoe.
Chrysopa chi – Guelph to northern and eastern Ontario
Chrysoperla harrisii – Toronto and north; 1 found in Chatham (Kent County).
Kymachrysa (Chrysopodes) placita – Eastern Ontario (Belleville); type specimen from Toronto.
Dichochrysa macleodi­ – Lambton County (Pinery) and north.
Eremochrysa canadensis – Georgian Bay; type specimen from Go Home Bay.
Meleoma emuncta – Hamilton and north.
Meleoma signoretti – Lambton County (Pinery) and north.