Epeolus – Quick ID

Quick ID
Epeolus

New revision at ZooKeys, 2018 #755: A revision of the cleptoparasitic bee genus Epeolus Latrielle for Nearctic species, north of Mexico (Hymenoptera, Apidae) by Thomas M. Onuferko.

Ontario species:
Epeolus ainsliei (new) in Kent County. Like E. scutellaris, but lower thorax (scutellum) and the points (axillae) are all red.
Epeolus americanus – Northern mostly north of Lake Superior
Epeolus autumnalis – southern
Epeolus bifasciatus – southern
Epeolus canadensis – southern
Epeolus interruptus – southern
Epeolus minimus – Georgian Bay to Toronto and north
Epeolus pusillus – southern
Epeolus scutellaris – southern

Note: Epeolus ilicis – has been dropped from the Ontario list of species. Only present in southeastern states and coastal border to N. Carolina.
Romankova in the Journal of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 2004 listed E. ilicis.  “What Romankova (2004) identified as E. ilicis, which constituted a new record of that species in Canada, might actually be E. gibbsi and/or E. inornatus. Unfortunately, the vouchered material from that study (three specimens from Ontario) cannot be traced, so the presence of E. ilicis in Canada has not been confirmed in the present study. Epeolus ilicis has been reported from the New England states, though the only examined specimen from that region (a male from Massachusetts) that had been identified as E. ilicis (by Richard L. Brumley) appears to actually be E.  inornatus based on the very short straight subapical hairs on S4 and S5. In Canada, E. gibbsi is only confirmed from southern Manitoba, so the  specimens from southern Ontario studied by Romankova could represent any of the three species.”, per Onuferko (2018).

Southern Ontario Epeolus

Legs mostly dark:
Epeolus bifasciatus – The easiest; only two yellow stripes on abdomen. Thorax segment 2 (scutellum) is bright red.

Legs with ALL thighs (femora) black:
E. autumnalis has the yellow stripe on the collar (prothorax) unbroken.
E. canadensis has the collar is separated or broken at centre.

Mid thorax stripes in E. autumnalis go straight down.
Mid thorax stripes in E. canadensis are joined at mid thorax, forming a V- or U-shape.

E. canadensis flies from late June to early August.
E. autumnalis flies only in September.

Legs all reddish-yellow; only hind thigh (femora) black:
Epeolus lectoides – Comparatively, E. lectoides is the only one with very thin white stripes on the abdomen (although slightly wider at side edges); all stripes are interrupted or broken at centre.

Legs all reddish:
E. scutellaris thorax sides have one curved line of white hair.
E. pusillus thorax sides entirely covered with white hair.

E. scutellaris thorax segment 2 (scutellum) female entirely red.
E. pusillus thorax segment 2 (scutellum) male and female black.

E. scutellaris has the 2 stripes on abdomen segment 1 not joined at side edges of segment.
E. pusillus has the 2 stripes on abdomen segment 1 thickly joined at side edges of segment.

E. scutellaris male has dark streaks on underside of mid and hind legs. Thorax segment 2 (scutellum) is black in male, like E. pusillus. Difficult to separate the males.

 

Epeolus – General

Cuckoo Bee
Epeolus

 

Epeolus are cuckoo bee that attack only Plasterer Bees Colletes species. Females sneak into Colletes ground nests, and lay an egg between the two cellophane layers surrounding each cell. When the Epeolus larva hatches, it first finds the Colletes egg or larva and kills it by using its long mandibles. Then it feeds on the stored pollen/nectar mixture.

In general Epeolus have black faces with varying amounts of hair. No yellow on male faces, but usually they have more hair than the females. Females have 10 antenna segments, males have 11. Females have 5 visible abdominal segments, males have 6.
All have narrow cheeks (genae), and collar (prothorax) which extend to the tubercle on the thorax side.
Thorax and abdomen have white to pale yellow markings. All (except E. bifasciatus) have two mid stripes extending half-way down the thorax from the collar. Slight variations in these stripes are main ID marks for some Epeolus.
Thorax segment 2 (scutellum) is slightly raised, rough with arrow-like points projecting from the sides (axillae). Varying amounts of red on the scutellum are also main ID marks.

Except for E. bifasciatus, all have stripes on each segment of the abdomen, and the first segment has two stripes with a black area between them.
Epeolus are difficult to tell from Triepeolus. Triepeolus are usually larger. Females lack the bright white spot at abdomen tip which is present in most Epeolus.

Eight Epeolus regularly fly in Ontario. Two others are doubtful (E. ilicis and E. interruptus).

Northern Species:
Epeolus americanus (lanhami) – Rainy River; Sudbury
Epeolus minimus – Toronto to Rainy River
Epeolus ilicis  – cannot be verified in Canada
Epeolus interruptus  – One verified in Ottawa 1947

Southern Species:
Epeolus autumnalis – Essex County up to Toronto – Sudbury
Epeolus bifasciatus – Widespread in Ontario
Epeolus canadensis – Essex County up to Georgian Bay – Ottawa
Epeolus lectoides – Essex County up to Toronto
Epeolus pusillus – Rare – Essex County to Grand Bend – Ottawa
Epeolus scutellaris – Widespread in Ontario.

Nomada vicina

Cuckoo Bee
Nomada vicina

Identification:

Cuckoo Bee Nomada vicina female on Goldenrod. Sep 01, 2006 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada vicina female on Goldenrod. Sep 01, 2006 Wheatley, Ontario.

Both male and female:
Head: Black with a few short, white hairs. Eyes bordered with reddish-brown line. Mandibles dark, toothless.
Top of mouth area (clypeus) has thin red line. Cheeks slightly narrower than eye width. Male has yellowish hair on lower face.
Antenna: Base (scape), pedicel and 1st segment more yellowish-brow, but not red. Rest of antenna dark brown. Underside brownish-yellow. Male has underside of base yellow.
Thorax: Dark brown with some reddish-brown streaks. Segment 2 (scutellum) raised knobs may be slightly reddish. Bottom end of thorax has tiny yellowish to whitish mark at each side; dense white hair on male. Thorax side have a few short, white hairs, more so on male.
Wings: Wing knobs (tegulae) shiny, reddish brown. Wings darkly tinted, light spot near tips. Veins dark. Male wings have lighter tint.
Legs: Female legs reddish brown; dark streaks on thighs (femora). Male legs brownish-yellow with darker streaks; tips lighter.

Cuckoo Bee Nomada vicina female on Goldenrod. Sep 01, 2006 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada vicina female on Goldenrod. Sep 01, 2006 Wheatley, Ontario.

Abdomen: Segments dark with bright yellow marks. Stripes on 3 to 5 about the same width.
Segment 1: Very narrow, wavy line, slightly interrupted at center.
Segment 2: Very wide stripe, notched at top, very slightly interrupted at center.
Segment 3: Narrow stripe, widely interrupted at center.
Segment 4: Narrow stripe, notched on lower border, barely interrupted at center.
Segment 5: Narrow stripe, notched on lower border, continuous.
Segment 6: Male only – same as segment 5.
Female tip squarish with tuft of dark hair; male tip wide, notched.
Underside of segments 2 to 4 with some yellow marks.

Similar Species: Females of Nomada banksi have an entirely red scape and base antenna segments, and while the scutellum also has red, it is more deeply grooved than in Nomada vicina.
Males of Nomada banksi have the clypeus is entirely bright yellow, and the scutellum either is entirely black or has a pair of small yellow spots. The marks on abdomen are superficially similar in the two, although minor differences are evident.

Size: Female 9 mm. Male 7 to 10 mm.

Habitat: Sandy meadows, forest edges.

Food: Goldenrod

Flight Time: August to September.

Life Cycle: Parasite of Mining Bees Andrena vicina per Hurd, 1979 and Andrena hirticincta.

Comments: Essex County – Ojibway Prairies species list, 2008. Kent County – Komoka Feed Mill. Peel and Durham Counties. Also in southern Michigan (Livingston County).

For information on synonyms, references and type specimens see next page

Nomada pygmaea

Cuckoo Bee
Nomada pygmaea

 

Identification:

Cuckoo Bee Nomada pygmaea female on Golden Alexanders, May 29, 2009 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada pygmaea female on Golden Alexanders, May 29, 2009 Wheatley, Ontario.

Female:
Head: Head dark red, somewhat yellowish on lower face, but not bright yellow. Eyes completely encircled with rusty reddish brown. Black patch over and between antenna, top of head between ocelli only. Cheeks nearly as wide as eyes, hind ½ or more black. Mandibles slender and simple at tips.
Antenna: Base (scape) more brownish-yellow. Segments dark brownish yellow on underside, darker on top side.

Cuckoo Bee Nomada pygmaea female on Dogbane. Jun 26, 2004 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada pygmaea female on Dogbane. Jun 26, 2004 Wheatley, Ontario.

Thorax: Dark red. Collar same, edges may be black. Segment 1 (scutum) red with a middle black line. Segment 2 (scutellum) red, quite deeply indented at centre. Segment 3 (propodeum) mostly reddish with black median line, sides black, with white hair. Thorax sides front half dark red, hind half all black; line of white hairs near lower edge of segment. Tubercles (pronotal lobes) brownish-yellow. Underside dense white hair.
Wings: Wing knobs (tegulae) reddish-yellow. Wings lightly tinted at base, sometimes distinctly yellowish, becoming rather deeply tinted along outer margin and in marginal cell, only at top. Veins brownish yellow to dark.

Cuckoo Bee Nomada pygmaea female on Bittersweet May 29, 2007 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada pygmaea female on Bittersweet May 29, 2007 Wheatley, Ontario.

Legs: Brownish-yellow. Thighs (femora) more or less dark, except at tips. Hind feet 1st segment (basitarsi) darkened, with white hairs.
Abdomen: Segments dark red.
Segment 1 dark across base of segment. No yellow.
Segments 2 and 3 only with widely separated, yellow marks.
Tip very short with silvery-white hairs, may appear as a whitish-yellow line.
Underside reddish, last segment has a very small tuft of brownish hairs on each side.

Male:

Cuckoo Bee Nomada pygmaea male on False Indigo. Jun 13, 2016 Point Pelee National Park, Leamington, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada pygmaea male on False Indigo. Jun 13, 2016 Point Pelee National Park, Leamington, Ontario.

Head: Upper face black. Lower face dull yellow to whitish, with thick white hair. Black, wavy line (suture) from each antenna base down to clypeus. Yellow stripe extends up inner eye margin to antenna bases, then becomes narrower around rest of eye, including the back. Black patch around antenna and on top of head. Cheeks much narrower than eye width, largely black, lower area covered with white hair. Mandibles toothless, bright yellow, tips dark.
Antenna: Base (scape) swollen, blackish on top side, bright yellow on underside. Base half of segments dark, rest lighter; underside brownish-yellow. Segment 1 and 3 shorter than all other segments.

Cuckoo Bee Nomada pygmaea male on Golden Alexanders, June 01, 2009 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada pygmaea male on Golden Alexanders, June 01, 2009 Wheatley, Ontario.

Thorax: Reddish brown or black with reddish streaks. Collar yellowish-red, wide interrupt at centre. Segment 1 (scutum) with a middle black line. Segment 2 (scutellum) deeply and sharply indented in centre, reddish-yellowish. Segment 3 (propodeum) entirely black with white hairs on each side. Thorax sides mostly black with a some reddish-brown, tubercles (pronotal lobes) and sometimes a small spot behind yellowish-red, lower sides densely covered with white hair. Hair entirely white on underside.

Cuckoo Bee Nomada pygmaea male on False Indigo. Jun 13, 2016 Point Pelee National Park, Leamington, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada pygmaea male on False Indigo. Jun 13, 2016 Point Pelee National Park, Leamington, Ontario.

Wings: Wing knobs (tegulae) reddish-yellow. Wings sub-hyaline at base, becoming faintly tinted in marginal cell and at tips. Veins brownish yellow.
Legs: Reddish-brown, except all thighs (femora) black at base half. Dense white hairs on underside of all legs.
Abdomen: Base segment dark reddish-brown, rest much lighter reddish-brown.
Segment 1 black at base.
Segments 2 wide stripe, narrowing and slightly interrupted at center.
Segment 3 narrow stripe, slightly broken at center. May be absent.
Segment 4 band, widely interrupted. May be absent.
Segments 5 and 6 more or less yellowish brown at bases. No yellow bands.
Tip about as wide as long, distinctly notched.
Underside of all segments quite densely hairy, 2 to 4 yellowish brown; segments 1, 5 and 6 are darker.

Cuckoo Bee Nomada pygmaea female on Nannyberry June 02, 2008 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada pygmaea female on Nannyberry June 02, 2008 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada pygmaea male about 5-6 mm on Climbing Bittersweet leaf June 01, 2009 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada pygmaea male about 5-6 mm on Climbing Bittersweet leaf June 01, 2009 Wheatley, Ontario.

Size: Female 7 to 8 mm. Male 6 to 8.5 mm

Habitat: Forest edges and meadows.

Food: Flower nectar.

Flight Time: Late April to end of June

Life Cycle: Parasitic on Mining Bees Andrena.

Comments: Essex County: Ojibway Prairies insect list, 2008 as c.f. (close form). Kent County – Rondeau Provincial Park. Peel, Norfolk counties and Algonquin Park. Also in southern Michigan (Livingston County).

For information on synonyms, references and type specimens see next page

Nomada perplexa

Cuckoo Bee
Nomada perplexa

 

Identification:
Female:
Head: Black. Lower face reddish-brown. Line encircling eyes reddish-brown. Cheeks about same as eye width. Mandibles toothed.
Antenna: Base or scape and segment 1 more rusty reddish brown on top. Rest of segments blackish on top, brownish yellow on underside. Tips pale.
Thorax: Black. Collar brownish-yellow. Segment 1 (scutum) with reddish-brown streaks, and centre black line. Segment 2 (scutellum) rusty reddish brown, deeply indented at centre. Segment 3 (propodeum) is black, sometimes with reddish-brown streaks and with pale hairs. Thorax sides rusty reddish brown with some black and covered with pale hairs. Tubercles (pronotal lobes) brownish-yellow.
Wings: Wing knobs shiny, mostly brownish yellow. Wings lightly tinted, darker along costal edge. Veins dark.
Legs: Legs mostly brownish yellow, covered with lighter fuzzy hairs. The thighs (femora) darker on underside.
Abdomen: Dark reddish-brown, shiny, lower edge of 1 to 4 blackish.
Segment 1 no yellow.
Segments 2 has a small yellow spot at each segment side.
Segment 3 no yellow.
Segment 4 no yellow.
Segment 5 no yellow; lower margin white.
Underside reddish-brown, lower margins blackish and some whitish hairs.

Cuckoo Bee Nomada perplexa male on Spring Beauty. Apr 27, 2008 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada perplexa male on Spring Beauty. Apr 27, 2008 Wheatley, Ontario.

Male:
Head: Upper face black, covered with silver-white hair. Lower face yellow, including under the eyes; dense silver-white hair. Cheeks as wide as eye width. Mandibles toothed, bright yellow, tips dark.
Antenna: Base (scape) dark. Segments dark rusty reddish brown, tips lighter. Underside light reddish-brown.
Thorax: Black. Collar reddish-brown. Segment 1 (scutum) black, may have reddish-brown streaks. Segment 2 (scutellum) rusty reddish brown, deeply indented at centre. Side of thorax with a small rusty reddish-brown mark nearer head and tubercles (pronotal lobes) reddish-brown.

Cuckoo Bee Nomada perplexa male on Spring Beauty. Apr 27, 2008 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada perplexa male on Spring Beauty. Apr 27, 2008 Wheatley, Ontario.

Wings: Wing knobs shiny, somewhat reddish brown. Wings faintly tinted, darker along costal edge. Veins brownish.
Legs: Reddish brown, with black streaks on thighs (femora).
Abdomen: Very dark reddish-brown. Segments 2 and 3 with widely separated, bright yellow marks.
Tip slightly narrowed, bi-lobed.

Cuckoo Bee Nomada perplexa male on Spring Beauty. Apr 27, 2008 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada perplexa male on Spring Beauty. Apr 27, 2008 Wheatley, Ontario.

Size: 6 to 8 mm

Habitat: Forest edges and meadows.

Food: Adults eat nectar.

Flight Time: April to July

Life Cycle: Parasite of Mining Bees Andrena.

Comments: Essex County – photos. Ojibway Prairies as cf. on species list, 2008. Niagara (St. Catharines). Also in Southern Michigan (Livingston County).

For information on synonyms, references and type specimens see next page

Nomada ovata

Cuckoo Bee
Nomada ovata

 

Identification:
Female: Conspicuously lighter than N. cuneata.

Head: Dark red. Black between and just above antenna bases and black spot on top of head. Lower face brownish-yellow. A narrow yellow line continues up inner eye margin to base of antenna. Mandibles toothed, yellow, tips dark. Cheeks narrower than eye width, white hairs; hind margin black.
Antenna: Entirely red. Segment 1 shorter than 2.
Thorax: Dark red. Segment 1 (scutum) has wide black median band. Segment 2 (scutellum) knobs very small, same colour as background, hardly any indent. Segment 3 (propodeum) red with black median line near end, white hairs at side edges. Thorax side dark area from wing bases to between mid and hind legs. Tubercles (pronotal lobes) brownish-yellow. White hairs on thorax sides.
Wings: King knobs (tegulae) brownish-yellow. Wings slightly tinted, tips dark. Veins and stigma dark.
Legs: Clear red to brownish-yellow, not blackened.
Abdomen: Red, long, oval  with yellow spots variable from none to most segments.
Segment 1 base and sides black. No yellow.
Segment 2 small yellow spot each side, pointed toward centre.
Segment 3 smaller yellow spot each side, at extreme base and may be hidden.
Segment 4 yellow spots at each side, sometimes absent.
Segment 5 yellow spots, occasionally joined to form a bar, or may be absent.
Tip rounded or ovate – thus the name, hairy.

Cuckoo Bee Nomada ovata male on Dewberry. May 30, 2007 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada ovata male on Dewberry. May 30, 2007 Wheatley, Ontario.

Male:
Head: Black. Upper face (front) dark. Lower face narrowly yellow, with wide and long dark area below antenna bases. Yellow continues up inside margin of eyes to base of antenna and around bottom of eye to half way up back eye margin. Cheeks slightly narrower than eye width. Mandibles toothed. Not much white hair.
Antenna: Base (scape) enlarged, brownish-yellow, more yellow on underside. Segments also brownish-yellow. Segment 1 slightly shorter or same as 2.

Cuckoo Bee Nomada ovata male on Wild Gernaium. May 24, 2006 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada ovata male on Wild Gernaium. May 24, 2006 Wheatley, Ontario.

Thorax: Red with black streaks. Collar brownish-yellow. Segment 1 (scutum) median black line. Segment 2 (scutellum) spotted with yellow, sometimes red, deep indent. Segment 3 (propodeum) black with white hairs. Thorax sides black, with white hairs. Tubercles (pronotal lobes) brownish-yellow, larger brownish-yellow spot below tubercles.
Wings: Wing knobs (tegulae) brownish-yellow. Wings slightly tinted, tips darker.
Legs: Brownish-yellow. Mid and hind thigh (femora) black, tips lighter.

Cuckoo Bee Nomada ovata male on Dewberry. May 30, 2007 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada ovata male on Dewberry. May 30, 2007 Wheatley, Ontario.

Abdomen: Red.
Segment 1 may have yellow.
Segment 2 wide yellow stripe, narrowly interrupted.
Segment 3 narrower yellow stripe, narrowly interrupted.
Segments 4 to 6 sometimes have yellow spots.
Tip deeply bi-lobed.

Size: Female 7.5 to 10 mm. Male 7 to 9.5 mm.

Habitat: Forest edges and meadows.

Food: Flower nectar.

Flight Time: May to June in Ontario.

Life Cycle: Parasitic on Mining bees Andrena.

Comments: Essex County – photos. Niagara – St. Catharines per Rutgers-Kelly thesis. Also in S. Michigan, Livingston County.

For information on synonyms, references and type specimens see next page

Nomada maculata

Cuckoo Bee
Nomada maculata

 

Identification:

Cuckoo Bee Nomada maculata female on Dewberry. June 02, 2010 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada maculata female on Dewberry. June 02, 2010 Wheatley, Ontario.

Female:
Head: Head reddish-brown. Black at base of antenna and on top of head. Cheeks slightly narrower than eyes, hind margin black. Mandibles toothed, tips black.
Antenna: Base (scape) reddish-brown. Segments more brownish. All segments longer than wide.
Thorax: Thorax reddish-brown. Segment 1 (scutum) has a narrow black middle line. Segment 2 (scutellum) shallowly indented at centre. Segment 3 (propodeum) reddish with dense silvery-white hairs on each side. Some black on thorax side, below wing base.  Hair pale, short on thorax sides.
Wings: Wing knobs (tegulae) brownish-yellow. Wings sub-hyaline, narrowly tinted along outer margin and in marginal cell. Three submarginal cells, the 2nd very broad anteriorily nearly squared, 3rd narrowed nearly to a point. Veins dark.

Cuckoo Bee Nomada maculata female on Sumac flowers. June 08, 2010 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada maculata female on Sumac flowers. June 08, 2010 Wheatley, Ontario.

Legs: Entirely reddish-brown. Thighs (femora) bases black on underside.
Abdomen: Segments shiny; each segment is rusty reddish-brown, lower half darker. Lower border becoming more yellowish-hyaline.
Segment 1 base black, or may have faint small yellow spot on each side.
Segments 2 and 3 have medium to small spots on each side, extremely wide interrupt at centre.
Segment 4 band much inset from side edges and interrupted at centre, or may be absent.
Segment 5 with a pair of large, distinct yellow spots at centre.
Tip very wide and short, covered with silvery hairs, squarish at tip.
Underside entirely reddish-brown.

Male: darker

Cuckoo Bee Nomada maculata male on Peach-leaf Willow. Apr 25, 2009 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada maculata male on Peach-leaf Willow. Apr 25, 2009 Wheatley, Ontario.

Head: Head black with short white hairs. Lower face bright yellow, hairy, with yellow extending up inner eye margin to antenna bases, and a small yellow mark at top of each eye, sometimes. Mandibles toothed, bright yellow, tips dark. Cheeks as wide as eye width.
Antenna: Base or scape brown on top, light red-brown on underside, no yellow. About first 5 segments dark, rest lighter reddish, underside of all segments light red-brown, same colour as base underside. Segments all the same size, longer than wide.
Thorax: Black covered with long pale hairs, and sometime streaked with reddish. Collar reddish-yellow. Segment 2 (scutellum) rounded, projecting knobs reddish-brown, only slightly indented. Segment 3 (propodeum or metanotum) entirely reddish-brown. Thorax side under wing knob rusty reddish brown. Tubercles (pronotal lobes) more brownish-yellow.

Cuckoo Bee Nomada maculata male on Fleabane. June 09, 2014 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada maculata male on Fleabane. June 09, 2014 Wheatley, Ontario.

Wings: Wing knobs (tegulae) shiny, brownish-yellow. Wings sub-hyaline, rather narrowly and lightly tinted along outer edge and around marginal cell. Veins dark.
Legs: Legs brownish-yellow to reddish-brown. Thighs (femora) bases black on underside, hind thigh black on top side, tip light. Underside of legs hairy.
Abdomen: Each segment reddish, with yellow bands, lower rim blackish. Line of hairs on lower

Cuckoo Bee Nomada maculata male on Peach-leaf Willow. Apr 23, 2008 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada maculata male on Peach-leaf Willow. Apr 23, 2008 Wheatley, Ontario.

margin on segments 3 to 6 at side edges.
Segment 1 is black at extreme base, and with a pair of rather small, yellow spots each side of centre.
Segment 2 & 3  have wide bands, narrowing and rounded with a small interrupt at centre.
Segments 4 and 5 with even narrower vague yellow bands which are partly interrupted at centre.
Segment 6 with a vague yellow band on mid segment, base of segment is black.
Tip narrowed and down-turned, fringed on each side with dense white tufts.

Cuckoo Bee Nomada maculata male flying off Fleabane. June 09, 2014 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada maculata male flying off Fleabane. June 09, 2014 Wheatley, Ontario.

Underside reddish-brown, with black line on lower rims.

Size: Female 11 mm. Male 8.5 to 10 mm

Habitat: Forest edges and meadows.

Food: Adults eat nectar from many flowers.

Flight Time: Mid April to June ( males to May)

Life Cycle: Parasitic on Andrena vicina.

Comments: Essex County – Lake Erie Island and Ojibway species list, 2008. Peel County and S. Michigan.

For information on synonyms, references and type specimens see next page

Nomada depressa

Cuckoo Bee
Nomada depressa

 

Identification: Abdominal segment 5 on female turns downward or is depressed. Unique.

Cuckoo Bee Nomada depressa female on Nannyberry. May 31, 2011 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada depressa female on Nannyberry. May 31, 2011 Wheatley, Ontario.

Female:
Head: Reddish-brown, with black between antenna bases and simple eyes (ocelli). Hair on the sides of the top of head rather dark and erect, otherwise very thin, short and white. Cheeks nearly as wide as eyes, hind margin black. Mandibles slender and toothless.
Antenna: Base (scape) entirely reddish-brown. Segments reddish-brown on base half, rest somewhat lighter. Underside reddish-yellow.

Cuckoo Bee Nomada depressa female on Sandbar Willow. Jun 10, 2005 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada depressa female on Sandbar Willow. Jun 10, 2005 Wheatley, Ontario.

Thorax: Reddish-brown. Collar yellow; ends black. Segment 1 has black mid line. Segment 2 middle quite deeply impressed; slightly reddish. Segment 3 (propodeum) mostly red with black side margins; or black with yellow side margins. Sides have wide blackish lines. Tubercle (pronotal lobe) yellow, small spot near tubercle yellow. Underside reddish-brown, slightly hairy.
Wings: Wing knobs shiny, reddish-brown. Wings faintly yellowish.
Legs: Reddish-yellow. Thighs (femora) more or less black at base and on underside.

Cuckoo Bee Nomada depressa female on Fleabane. May 30, 2014 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada depressa female on Fleabane. May 30, 2014 Wheatley, Ontario.

Abdomen: Segments mostly rusty reddish-brown with blackish lower margins.
Segment 1 with the base black, rest reddish.
Segment 2 with large yellow stripe, pointed inward,  interrupted at centre.
Segment 3 has smaller yellow oblong stripe, wide interrupt at centre.
Segment 4 with a pair of much smaller, lighter yellow marks inset from edges; sometimes no marks.
Segment 5 has a short yellow semi-divided patch or sometimes just a line with a slight break at centre, lower part of segment angled downward and ‘depressed’ with silvery-white line at bottom. Tip squared.
Underside reddish-brown.

Male:

Cuckoo Bee Nomada depressa male on Ox-eye Daisy. June 03, 2014 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada depressa male on Ox-eye Daisy. June 03, 2014 Wheatley, Ontario.

Head: Dark reddish-brown with black from mouth to top of head. Rusty reddish-brown, narrow marks surround top of eye and extend down the back of the eye. Front lower eye margin (from antenna bases downward) is yellow. Cheeks slightly narrower than eyes, hind margin dark. Mandibles toothless, yellow, tips dark. White, thin hair on lower face.
Antenna: Base (scape) strongly swollen, yellow on underside, becoming darkened on top side. Segments are brownish-black on base half, upper half lighter on top side.  Underside brownish-yellow. Segment 1 shorter than 2.

Cuckoo Bee Nomada depressa male on Ox-eye Daisy. June 03, 2014 Wheatley, Ontario.Cuckoo Bee Nomada depressa male on Ox-eye Daisy. June 03, 2014 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada depressa male on Ox-eye Daisy. June 03, 2014 Wheatley, Ontario.

Thorax: Dark reddish-brown. Collar yellow. Segment 1 (scutum) with very deeply grooved, wide black mid line, sometimes absent.  Segment 2 (scutellum) deeply divided, often more reddish. Segment 3 (propodeum) black but with a faint, reddish area on each side margin, white hair. Thorax sides largely red but with a small yellow spot near wing base and a narrow transverse line of black just below wing bases. Tubercles (pronotal lobes) yellowish-brown. White, thin hairs on lower thorax sides. Underside is black.
Wings: Wing knobs reddish to yellowish. Wings faintly yellowish.
Legs: Legs mostly brownish-yellow to reddish, tips lighter; hind thigh darker. Thighs (femora) blackish on underside.

Cuckoo Bee Nomada depressa male on Fleabane Jun 03, 2014 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada depressa male on Fleabane Jun 03, 2014 Wheatley, Ontario.

Abdomen: Dark red-brown, but slightly paler than thorax.
Segment 1 base ½ black, lower ½ reddish with some yellowish along centre, or lateral spot each side.
Segment 2 has very wide yellow spot, pointed at centre, narrowly interrupted, margin red.
Segment 3 yellow stripe, covers 1/3 of segment on each side, rest of stripe area reddish.
Segments 4 to 6 have incomplete yellow bands always interrupted at centre, except 6; all stripes may be missing on 4 to 6. White hairs on side edges.
Tip dark red, deeply lobed.
Underside of  2 and 3 largely yellow, margins darker.

Size: Female 6 to 12 mm. Male 8 mm

Habitat: Forest edges and meadows.

Food: Pollen and nectar from flowers.

Flight Time: June

Life Cycle: Parasitic on Mining Bees Andrena species.

Comments: Essex County – photos. Niagara (St. Catharines) and Michigan.

For information on synonyms, references and type specimens see next page

Nomada cressonii

Cuckoo Bee
Nomada cressonii

 

Identification:
Female:

Cuckoo Bee Nomada cressonii female on Sumac flowers Jun 19, 2014 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada cressonii female on Sumac flowers Jun 19, 2014 Wheatley, Ontario.

Head: Reddish-brown with pale hairs. Lower face (clypeus) more brownish-yellow, but not yellow; hair white. Top of head (vertex) around simple eyes (ocelli) and surrounding antennae bases is black. Cheeks slightly narrower than eye width, black with reddish-brown border around eye margin, white hair. Mandibles reddish-brown, slender and simple, tips black.
Antenna: Base (scape) reddish-yellow. Segments thick, dull reddish-brown on top side, tip light; more brownish-yellow on underside. Segment 1 & 3 short. All other about equal.

Cuckoo Bee Nomada cressonii female on Sumac flowers. June 19, 2014 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada cressonii female on Sumac flowers. June 19, 2014 Wheatley, Ontario.

Thorax: Reddish-brown, no yellow. Collar black at sides. Segment 1 (scutum) has an indented median, longitudinal black stripe. Segment 2 (scutellum) reddish-brown, knobs hardly indented at centre. Segment 3 (propodeum) reddish-brown, with small black spot at end; sides with thin white hairs. Thorax side has wide black stripe from wing knob diagonally down to mid leg. Sides covered with white hairs.
Wings: Wing knobs small, bright reddish-brown. Wings slightly tinted at base, becoming darker, especially tips. Stigma dark. Veins black.
Legs: Brownish-yellow with a line of very short whitish-yellow fringe on underside from thighs (femora) to feet. Front and middle thighs (femora) darkened at base, and underside. Hind thigh about ½ dark. Hind feet (1st metatarsi) dark on top side.
Abdomen: Reddish- brown with yellow marks and stripes. Lower margins dark.

Cuckoo Bee Nomada cressonii female on Hoptree flower. Jun 08, 2013 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada cressonii female on Hoptree flower. Jun 08, 2013 Wheatley, Ontario.

Segment 1 base, along with lower margin dark. No yellow spots.
Segments 2 and 3 have large spots, narrowing toward centre and widely interrupted at centre.
Segment 4 with very small spot inset from each side edge, narrowing toward centre; or no spot.
Segment 5 has short squarish stripe or slightly separated spots at centre, lower margin has narrow yellow line, hairy.
Abdomen tip short, wide, squared, with less hair than others; yellow to silvery hairs with a patch of long, curved dark gray (brown or black) hairs on each side.
Underside is dark at base, becoming lighter at apex (no yellow) and has dense, sub-erect, silvery hairs. Usually hair on 2 to 5 visible at sides as white tomentum, pile or fuzzy oval patches.

Cuckoo Bee Nomada cressonii male Jun 01, 2006 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada cressonii male Jun 01, 2006 Wheatley, Ontario.

Male:
Head: Reddish-brown with white dense hairs. Lower face (clypeus) yellow, with dense yellow hair, yellow extending up inner eye margin a little past antenna bases, and around bottom of eye margin. Upper face (front) mostly black; upper eye margin narrow, reddish-brown. Mandibles yellow, slender and simple; black tips.  Cheeks much narrower than eye width, mostly black with dense white hairs on lower half.
Antenna: Base (scape) reddish-brown with wide black stripe across tip on upper side; underside yellow. Segments dark reddish-brown lower half, upper half light reddish-brown. Segment 1 shorter than all other segments.

Cuckoo Bee Nomada cressonii male on Basket of Gold (exotic). May 21-14 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada cressonii male on Basket of Gold (exotic). May 21-14 Wheatley, Ontario.

Thorax: Collar stripe faint brownish-yellow to reddish. Segment 1 (scutum) reddish-brown with a wide, black median line indented. Segment 2 (scutellum) reddish, only slightly indented at centre. Mitchell says deeply. Segment 3 (propodeum) black with a few white hairs. Thorax sides reddish-brown, black from under wing knob (tegulae) to front legs. Tubercles yellowish-red and a small obscure red spot near tubercle. Thorax underside has dense, short white hairs.
Wings: Wing knobs (tegulae) shiny,  more yellowish than female. Wings hyaline, tips darker. Veins and stigma dark.
Legs: Front and middle legs brownish-yellow, tips lighter. Hind legs pale reddish-brown, tips lighter. Underside of thighs (femora) darker, streaked. Hind 1st tarsi blackish.

Cuckoo Bee Nomada cressonii male on Ox-Eye Daisy. Jun 03, 2008 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada cressonii male on Ox-Eye Daisy. Jun 03, 2008 Wheatley, Ontario.

Abdomen: Reddish brown. Segments 3 to 6 have light hairs at sides.
Segment 1 is blackish at base, lower edge more rusty reddish brown. May have yellow spots or band. Mitchell no mention.
Segments 2 and 3 with broad, central yellow stripes that are slightly interrupted at centre. Lower ends of segments more rusty reddish brown.
Segment 4 with rather widely separated yellow marks or none on each side edge.
Segment 5 has a wide but short yellow stripe, or none at centre. Lower rim yellowish.
Segment 6 has wide but short yellow stripe, always present. Lower rim yellowish.
Underside yellowish to brownish-yellow. Tip of underside bright yellow with dense hairs. Tip as long as wide, rather strongly narrowed to tip which is very deeply incised.

Size: Female 8 to 10 mm long. Male 7 to 9 mm long.

Habitat: Forest areas where Mining bees Andrena vicina and A. crataegi are present.

Food: Adults feed on a wide variety of flowers including Thistle, Beebalm, Strawberry, Honeysuckle, Pussy toes and Dewberry.

Flight Time: April to July.

Life Cycle: Listed as parasite of Mining Bees Andrena vicina and A. crataegi. Larva destroy eggs and feed on the stored pollen for Andrena larvae.

Comments: Essex County – Ojibway species list, 2008. Peel County, Ontario (Oaks Ridge Moraine). Also in Southern Michigan (Livingston County).

For information on synonyms, references and type specimens see next page

Nomada bethunei

Cuckoo Bee
Nomada bethunei

 

Identification: Scutellum is entirely red on both male and female of Nomada bethunei.

Cuckoo Bee Nomada bethunei female on Ox-eye Daisy. Jun 03, 2012 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada bethunei female on Ox-eye Daisy. Jun 03, 2012 Wheatley, Ontario.

Female:
Head: Red with black area on top of head and around antenna bases. Lower face orange-yellowish, with thin covering of whitish hair; color may extend vaguely, up inner eye margin. Cheeks hairy, narrower than eye width, with dark hind border. Mandibles without teeth.
Antenna: Base (scape) reddish. Segments reddish, very thick, slightly lighter on underside. Segment 1 slightly shorter than all others.

Cuckoo Bee Nomada bethunei female on Ox-eye Daisy Jun 03, 2012 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada bethunei female on Ox-eye Daisy Jun 03, 2012 Wheatley, Ontario.

Thorax: Red.  Collar stripe yellow; short and narrowing or interrupted at centre. Segment 1 (scutum) with a faint, narrow median black line. Segment 2 (scutellum) has indented mid-line with red knob on each side. Segment 3 (propodeum) has 2 yellow spots at base and 2 longer, larger spots on lower half. White fringe on side edges. Thorax sides have yellow tubercles (pronotal lobes) and may have other very small, vague yellow spots or streaks below tubercle; all with thin covering of short white hair. A wide black area extends from under wing base to hind leg. Underside with some white hairs.

Cuckoo Bee Nomada bethunei female on Golden Alexanders May 29, 2009 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada bethunei female on Golden Alexanders May 29, 2009 Wheatley, Ontario.

Wings: Wing knobs (tegulae) brownish-yellow. Wings moderately tinted, tips darker. Veins dark. Stigma reddish-brown.
Legs: Legs reddish-yellow. Mid and hind thighs (femora) have some black streaks, hind thigh also black on underside.
Abdomen: Red with bright yellow stripes and spots.
Segment 1 darker red to blackish. May have faint light reddish to light yellow marks, but no bright yellow stripe.
Segment 2 has a wide oval stripe, narrowing toward centre, slightly interrupted or not. Segment 3 stripe wider at side edges, narrowing and interrupted or not at centre.
Segment 4 stripe is narrower, slightly interrupted at centre or not; notched on lower margin.
Segment 5 has square patch in centre, usually with a yellow spot or crescent at each side edge and lower margin of segments is fringed with silvery hairs.
Abdomen tip squared (not lobed) with silver hairs and longer, brownish hair tuft at each side, curving toward middle of segment.
Underside of segments red; 3 to 5 with yellow spots or streaks.

Cuckoo Bee Nomada bethunei male on Ox-eye Daisy. Jun 03, 2008 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada bethunei male on Ox-eye Daisy. Jun 03, 2008 Wheatley, Ontario.

Male:
Head: Reddish-brown with very short and thin, whitish hair; Lower face (clypeus) yellow with lighter yellow up inner eye margin to antenna bases, hair more dense. Yellow spot under and between antenna bases. Cheeks narrower than eye width, red with very narrow, black border. Mandibles large, not toothed.
Antenna: Base (scape) very swollen, reddish-brown on top side, yellow on underside. Segments on top side dark brownish-yellow on base half, rest light red, tip even lighter; underside light red. Segment 1 much shorter than 2.

Cuckoo Bee Nomada bethunei male on Witherod (Viburnum) Jun 06, 2009 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada bethunei male on Witherod (Viburnum) Jun 06, 2009 Wheatley, Ontario.

Thorax: Reddish-brown with scant yellowish hair. Collar stripe very narrow, yellow, widely interrupted at centre. Segment 1 (scutum) has narrow black median line. Segment 2 deeply indented along mid-line, the two knobs reddish. Segment 3 (propodeum) black with 4 faint, small light yellow marks, 2 on each side edge and may be joined; white hairs on side edges. Thorax sides have some black areas, all covered with dense whitish hair. Tubercles (pronotal lobes) yellow, another small yellow spot above mid legs. Underside has dense white hairs.
Wings: Wing knobs (tegulae) brownish-yellow. Wings base light, rest darkly tinted, tips darker. Veins and stigma brownish-yellow.

Cuckoo Bee Nomada bethunei male on Ox-eye Daisy Jun 03, 2008 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada bethunei male on Ox-eye Daisy Jun 03, 2008 Wheatley, Ontario.

Legs: Legs largely reddish-yellow with yellowish streaks on underside; front leg somewhat lighter.
Abdomen: Reddish-brown. Yellow stripes along base margin (on 2 to 4) of segments, not interrupted at centre.
Segment 1 darker red to blackish. May have faint light reddish stripe, changing to yellow at sides, but not a bright yellow stripe.
Segment 2 wide oval stripe, narrowing toward centre.
Segment 3 stripe wider at side edges, narrowing.
Segment 4 stripe is narrower.
Segments 5 and 6 stripes entire, may not reach side edges; positioned at mid segment, not base.
Abdomen tip very wide, distinctly notched with long pale hair.
Underside reddish-brown, 3 to 6 with yellow marks.

Size: Female 9 mm. Male 9 to 10 mm

Habitat: Forest edges and meadows.

Food: Adults feed on nectar and pollen.

Flight Time: Late May to early June.

Life Cycle: Larvae are parasites of Mining Bees Andrena species.

Comments: Essex County: Ojibway Prairies species list, 2008; females on May 11 to 15, 2007 barcoded. Bruce Peninsula species list, 2006. St. Catharines, Niagara per Sheffield in 2011.

For information on synonyms, references and type specimens see next page

Nomada bella

Cuckoo Bee
Nomada bella

Identification:
Female:

Cuckoo Bee Nomada bella female on forest floor Apr 17, 2014 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada bella female on forest floor Apr 17, 2014 Wheatley, Ontario.

Head: Reddish-brown, slightly hairy. Dark spot on top of head and around antenna bases. Mandibles toothed.
Antenna: Entirely reddish-brown.
Thorax: Reddish-brown with some pale hairs. Segment 1 has median black line. Segment 2 (scutellum) slightly indented along centre. Segment 3 (propodeum) has some black and pale hairs on sides. Thorax sides have black near lower edge, sides covered with dense silvery-white hair.

Cuckoo Bee Nomada bella female on garden bulb flower Apr 18, 2014 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada bella female on garden bulb flower Apr 18, 2014 Wheatley, Ontario.

Tubercle (pronotal lobe) barely visible.
Wings: Wing knobs (tegulae) dark reddish-yellow. Wings slightly tinged, tips darker. Veins dark, stigma reddish.
Legs: Entirely reddish-brown; except coxae and underside of thighs (femora) darker.
Abdomen: Reddish-brown, shiny with yellow spots.
Segment 1 base black, no yellow spots.
Segment 2 medium-sized, round yellow spot on each side.
Segments 3 & 4 faint spots or none.
Segment 5 two yellow spots close together at centre – distinct.
Underside entirely reddish-brown.

Similar species: Females of N. ovata are more red.

Cuckoo Bee Nomada bella male on Peach-leaf Willow catkin Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada bella male on Peach-leaf Willow catkin Apr 22, 2008 Wheatley, Ontario.

Male:
Head: Black, with dense pale hairs, more yellowish on top of head. Lower face (clypeus) yellowish with dark border and silvery hair. Inner eye margin narrow, yellowish-white extends from mouth to antenna bases. Cheeks about same width as eye width, hairy on lower half. Mandibles yellow with dark tips, toothed.
Antenna: Base (scape) entirely black. Segments dark reddish-brown with light tips; underside lighter. Segment 1 shorter than 2.

Cuckoo Bee Nomada bella male on Globe Flower Apr 11, 2014 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada bella male on Globe Flower Apr 11, 2014 Wheatley, Ontario.

Thorax: Black, white erect long hairs. No yellow collar. Segment 2 (scutellum) entirely dark, dent in centre barely visible. Segment 3 (propodeum) black, white hairs on sides. Thorax sides densely hairy; tubercle brown, barely visible.
Wings: Wing knobs (tegulae) deep reddish-brown. Wings hyaline, tips dark. Veins brownish-yellow.
Legs: Orangish-brown with dense white hairs on underside of thighs (femora), tips lighter orange. Hind leg darker. Shins (tibiae) with some dark streaks. Feet (tarsi) a darker reddish-brown.
Abdomen: Dark brown with wide yellow stripes or spots all interrupted at centre, except segment 6.
Segment 1 base dark with light yellowish spots vague at side edges, or missing.
Segment 2 has widest spots, usually with notch in upper margin-side corner, and slightly wavy along lower margin.
Segment 3 slightly narrow stripe.
Segments 4 and 5 have narrower stripes with lower margin of stripes having U-shaped, inset indents, which sometimes can break the stripe so that it appears as spots.
Segment 6 stripe continuous across segment.
Abdomen tip narrow, bi-lobed, with long hairs forming a point.
Underside is darker, sometimes with spot on each side of segment 3 and at tip.

Cuckoo Bee Nomada bella female on forest floor May 08, 2014 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada bella female on forest floor May 08, 2014 Wheatley, Ontario.

Similar Species: N. maculata male has two-tone antenna on top side, abdomen is red, not black, and flies later in April.

Size: Male 5.5 to 8.5 mm.

Habitat: Forest edges and meadows.

Food: Pollen and nectar from flowers.

Cuckoo Bee Nomada bella male on Globe Flower Apr 11, 2014 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada bella male on Globe Flower Apr 11, 2014 Wheatley, Ontario.

Flight Time: Early spring.

Life Cycle: Parasite on Mining Bee Andrena species; Andrena imitatrix is listed as a host, but does not fly in Ontario.

Comments: Essex County – per photos, not on any list. Also Peel County.

For information on synonyms, references and type specimens see next page

Nomada banksi

Cuckoo Bee
Nomada banksi

Identification:
Female:

Cuckoo Bee Nomada banksi female. Sept 07, 2006 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada banksi female. Sept 07, 2006 Wheatley, Ontario.

Head: Wide, reddish; black from antenna to top of head in center. Upper half of eyes have wide reddish-brown border. Lower eyes have a bright yellow margin. Lower face reddish on female; entirely. Cheeks much wider than eye width.
Antenna: Base (scape) and segments dark reddish on top side and reddish-yellow on underside. Segments thick, all about the same size.

Cuckoo Bee Nomada banksi female searching for Andrena hirticincta nest to lay eggs. Sept 07, 2006 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada banksi female searching for Andrena hirticincta nest to lay eggs. Sept 07, 2006 Wheatley, Ontario.

Thorax: Rough, black with reddish-brown streaks, no yellow. Segment 2 (scutellum) deep indent, raised knobs rusty reddish. Segment 3 (propodeum) black with long yellow mark on each side and white hairs at end. Thorax sides more reddish with some black; white hairs. Tubercles (pronotal lobe) red to yellow, another narrow, transverse yellow mark, with top and bottom borders bright reddish brown. Underside of thorax with dense white hairs.
Wings: Wing knobs (tegulae) brownish-yellow to red. Wings dusky reddish, much lighter area before darker border at tips. Veins dark, stigma reddish-brown.
Legs: Red, streaked with black. Front legs lighter, more yellowish. Thighs (femora) black on underside. Hind shin (tibiae) black on underside and 4 to 5 long bristles at tip.
Abdomen: Black with bright lemon-yellow marks.
Segment 1: Thin wavy series of disjointed marks.
Segment 2: Very large stripe with slight interrupt at centre.
Segment 3: Narrower stripe, notched on lower margin, very widely interrupted at centre.
Segment 4: Narrow stripe, deeply notched on lower margin; very slight interrupt at centre.
Segment 5: Large square patch in centre, covering width of segment. Small yellow mark at each side.
Tip square, covered with dense silvery and yellow hairs.
Underside reddish-brown, some segments have yellow dots.

Male:
Head:  Upper face black, with short pale yellowish hairs on upper face (front); lower face including eye margin, yellow with silvery hairs.  Cheeks black, much narrower than eye width.
Antenna: Base (scape) swollen, black on top side, yellow on underside. Segments brownish-yellow to black on top side, reddish-brown on underside. Segment 1 shorter than all others.
Thorax: Black with short pale hairs. Collar (pronotum) black, sharply angled at each end. Segment 2 (scutellum) black, the raised knobs, sometimes with slight yellowish dot. Thorax sides with large yellow spot. Tubercles (pronotal lobes) brownish-yellow; silvery hairs. Underside has dense white hairs.
Wings: Wing knobs (tegulae) brownish-yellow. Wings hyaline, much lighter patch just before wide dark tips. Veins brownish-black.
Legs: Front and mid legs reddish-yellow on top, underside blackish. Hind pair darker, streaked with rusty reddish, especially the thigh (femora).
Abdomen: Black with yellow spots and bands, similar to female.
Segment 1 stripe very narrow, slightly interrupted.
Segment 2 large spot on each side, narrowing toward centre with a slight interrupt.
Segment 3 fairly large spot on each side, widely interrupted at centre.
Segment 4 and 5 stripe widely interrupted at center, lower edge has two U-shaped deep indents, sometimes breaking stripe entirely. Those of 5 may have spots instead, at side edges.
Segments 6 has centre square with a small spot at each side edge.
Abdomen tip is black, rounded with a slight notch, underside with pale erect hairs.
Underside is black, except segments 2 and 3 yellow.

Size: Female 7.5 to 9 mm. Male 7.5 to 8.5 mm.

Habitat: Meadows with asters, goldenrod and Mining Bee Andrena asteris

Food: Flower pollen and nectar.

Flight Time: August to September.

Life Cycle: According to Ascher in Northeastern Naturalist, 2014, Vol. 21; N. banksi is possibly a parasite of the Mining Bee Andrena asteris.

Comments: Essex County – Ojibway species list 2008. Also Middlesex and Brant Counties.

For information on synonyms, references and type specimens see next page

Nomada articulata

Cuckoo Bee
Nomada articulata

Identification: Female entirely red, without yellow marks. Male antenna unique colour combination: dark, light, dark, tip light.
Female:
Head: Dark red with short silvery-white hair. Top of head has a dark spot extending down to the base of the antenna. Mandibles toothless. Cheeks half as wide as eye width.
Antenna: Base (scape) bright dark red, underside blackish. Segments dark rusty red to brown-black, lighter on underside.  All segments the same size.
Thorax: Dark red. Collar dark red, with black at each side edge. Segment 1 (scutum) has a faint black median line. Segment 2 (scutellum) has slightly projecting knobs light rusty red. Segment 3 (propodeum) mostly black, sides with dense silvery-white hair. Thorax front half dark red, rest  black; covered with silvery-white hair. Tubercles reddish-yellow.
Wings: Wing knobs (tegulae) reddish-yellow. Wings slightly tinted, clear spot before tips. Tips dark.
Legs: Brownish-yellow with blackish streaks, more so on underside.
Abdomen: Bright dark red, smooth and shiny. Segment 1 black at base. No other marks on abdomen. Tip very short with tufts of silver hair.

Similar Species: Female is same bright dark red  as female Nomada pygmaea, but without yellow spots on abdomen. Females fly low to the ground and are never still. Almost impossible to photograph.

Male:

Cuckoo Bee Nomada articulata male sleeping for the night on Ox-eye Daisy. May 30, 2009 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada articulata male sleeping for the night on Ox-eye Daisy. May 30, 2009 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada articulata male on Ox-eye Daisy. May 30, 2008 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada articulata male on Ox-eye Daisy. May 30, 2008 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada articulata male on Chives flower. June 06, 2007 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada articulata male on Chives flower. June 06, 2007 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada articulata male on Ox-eye Daisy. June 04, 2007 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada articulata male on Ox-eye Daisy. June 04, 2007 Wheatley, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada articulata male on Astilbe. June 07, 2015 Leamington, Ontario.
Cuckoo Bee Nomada articulata male on Astilbe. June 07, 2015 Leamington, Ontario.

Head: Upper face black. Lower face light yellow, including mandibles (tips dark), without teeth. Yellow continues up inner eye margin to just above antenna bases. Cheeks black, as wide as eye width.
Antenna: Base (scape) swollen, dark on top side, yellow on underside. Segment colors unique: 1 to 3 or 4 dark, segments 3 or 4 to 7 light, segments 8 to 10 dark, tips light. Underside of antenna light brownish-yellow.
Thorax: Dark rusty brown. Collar with narrow yellow stripe. Segment 1 (scutum) dark rusty brown. Segment 2 (scutellum) has brighter rusty red, slightly raised knobs. Segment 3 (propodeum) has silvery hair at side edges. Thorax side darker to blackish, covered with silvery hair. Tubercles are light rusty red. Another small yellowish spot and 2nd small yellow spot side by side near hind leg joint are barely visible.
Wings: Wing knobs (tegulae) light rusty red. Wings tinted, clear spot before tips, veins light rusty red.
Legs: Base of thighs (femora) and trochanters dark, covered with silvery hairs. Front and middle leg light rusty red, hind leg darker. All shins (tibiae) have yellowish-brown pile. Hind thigh curved.
Abdomen: Rusty red, with varying amounts of black, usually at very base or end of segments.
Segment 1 medium to tiny yellow spot on each side.
Segment 2 large oval patch on each side, with a pointed area toward centre.
Segments 3 to 6, yellow stripes across segment; segment 3 interrupted or not at centre.
Tip rusty red, slightly bi-lobed.
Underside entirely rusty red, light-colored hairs on segments 4 to end.

Size: Female 8.5 mm. Male 8.5 to 9.5 mm

Habitat: Forest edges and meadows.

Food: Flower nectar such as Dewberry and Black-eyed-Susan.

Flight Time: May and June in Essex County. April to August in Ontario.

Life Cycle: A cleptoparasite of Metallic Green Bees Agapostemon virescens, A. sericeus and Mining Bee Andrena alleghaniensis.
“The female cuckoo bees normally visit the Agapostemon nesting area once or twice during the time of day that they are active, staying for between 14 and 45 minutes and making repeated attempts to enter host burrows. They fly around the burrow area a few centimetres above the ground and alight on a suitable perch a short distance from a nest entrance. For anything between 5 seconds and 10 minutes, they sit facing the burrow entrance, with their antennae directed towards it, before they make any attempt to enter. Of attempts to enter the nest burrow, 50% are made after the host has left on a foraging trip; otherwise they are made just after the host has entered the burrow or when there is no visible activity at the nest entrance. At no time do N. articulata females attempt to enter when the host is at the nest entrance. Having decided to investigate a burrow, the female cuckoo bee advances towards it with her wings vibrating. At the burrow entrance, she stops and then inserts her antennae into it for 1 to 2 seconds, her wings still vibrating. The wing-vibrating then ceases and she walks into the burrow to lay her eggs.” per Rod Preston-Mafham, Encyclopedia of Land Invertebrate Behavior, 1993, pg. 154.

Comments: Essex County per photos– not on any list. Kent County – Rondeau Provincial Park species list.  Toronto, Peel County, Niagara, Long Point. Also in Southern Michigan (Livingston County).

For information on synonyms, references and type specimens see next page

Nomada fervida

Cuckoo Bee
Nomada fervida

Cuckoo Bee Nomada fervida male
Cuckoo Bee Nomada fervida male on False Indigo at Point Pelee National Park, Leamington, Ontario Jun 16, 2015.

Identification: Entirely black to brownish with yellow scutellum. Female has 2 yellow abdominal stripes. Male has additional broken yellow lines on other segments.
Head: Black with yellow marks. Yellow mark on upper hind eye margin. Tear-drop shaped mark starting just above antenna bases, widening at lower face (clypeus). Clypeus black on female, yellow on male. Cheeks narrow, less than half width of eye. Mandibles yellow, tips dark.
Antenna: Base (scape) and pedicel yellowish-brown. Segments brownish-black.
Thorax: Brownish. Collar stripe bright yellow. Segment 1 (scutum) black with a yellow mark near wing base. Segment 2 (scutellum) raised area bright yellow with reddish between knobs. Yellow line on lower border. Segment 3 (propodeum) entirely black; male has plume of whitish hair down each side. Thorax sides black with bright yellow tubercle (pronotal lobe) and large yellow central spot; some long whitish hairs.
Wings: Wing knobs (tegulae) shiny, bright yellow. Wings tinted quite dark. Veins dark.
Legs: Legs reddish. Female has long hairs on hind shin (tibiae). Male hind thighs (femora) dark, tips light. Hind shin reddish with yellow streaks and spots.
Abdomen: Brown to black with yellow stripes.
Segment 1: Thin, wavy stripe in center of segment on female; straight across on male.
Segment 2: Wide stripe, narrowing at center.
No other marks on female.
Segments 3 to 5 Male: Thin line of 4 dashes on each segment, sometimes faded or missing.
Segment 6 Male: Black. Underside entirely black with extremely short yellowish hairs. Tip square. Male tip has 2 lobes.

Size: Female 10 mm; Male 7 to 8 mm.

Habitat: Deep, loose sand in prairies and along shorelines.

Food: Adults feed on flower nectar.

Flight Time: July in Ontario.

Life Cycle: Parasitic on Metallic Green Bees Agapostemon. Specifically recorded with Agapostemon splendens.

Comments: Essex County – Point Pelee National Park.
Kent County – Rondeau Provincial Park.
Lambton County – Pinery Provincial Park.
Bruce County – Inverhuron Provincial Park.

For information on synonyms, references and type specimens see next page

Nomada luteoloides

Cuckoo Bee
Nomada luteoloides

 

Cuckoo Bee Nomada luteoloides female
Cuckoo Bee Nomada luteoloides female on Ox-eye Daisy June 06, 2008, Wheatley, Ontario
Cuckoo Bee Nomada luteoloides male
Cuckoo Bee Nomada luteoloides male on dandelion Apr 29, 2007 Kingsville, Ontario


Female:
Head: Black with sparse pale hair. Lower face (clypeus) yellowish. Wide yellow band almost completely surrounds eye margin. Cheeks almost as wide as eye width. Mandibles without teeth.
Antenna: Base (scape) reddish-brown, underside brownish-yellow. Segments dark; reddish-brown on underside.
Thorax: Black, with a thin yellow line on edge above wing base. Collar bright yellow. Segment 2 (scutellum) has two large bright yellow knobs and a yellow line below. Segment 3 (propodeum) has large yellow side patches. Thorax sides have a very large yellow patch below 1 or 2 small spots. Tubercles (pronotal lobes) bright yellow. Underside of thorax dark.
Wings: Wing knobs (tegula) bright yellow. Wings tinted reddish, tips slightly darker. Veins reddish yellow.
Legs: Thighs (femora) largely reddish with wide yellow tips; may have black streaks. Shins (tibiae) yellow with reddish-brown streaks. Feet light brown.
Abdomen: Reddish-brown with wide, bright yellow stripes; all except first stripe entire across segments. Segment 2 has the widest stripe. Abdomen tip wide, square. Underside of 2 to 6 are yellow, margins reddish. Underside of segment 5 has a dense tuft of long, curved, brownish hairs which meet at center, and segment also covered with silvery hair.

Male:
Head: Black with short, pale yellowish hair over entire head. Lower face (clypeus) yellow. Eye margins have yellow border almost complete. Cheeks narrower than eye width. Mandibles quite slender, no teeth.
Antenna: Base (scape) dark on top side, bright yellow and enlarged on underside. Segments dark on top side, brownish-yellow on underside. Segment 1 shorter than 2. Rest slightly longer than wide. Segment 3 without spines, but 7 to 10 with spines (denticles).
Thorax: Black with short, pale yellowish hair. Segment 1 (scutum) without marks. Segment 2 (scutellum) has two very small yellow knobs, may be absent. Segment 3 (propodeum) has each side fringed with light hair. Thorax sides have bright yellow tubercle (pronotal lobe) with a mark below. Underside densely covered with light hair.
Wings: Wing knobs (tegulae) bright yellow. Wings slightly tinted, tips darker. Veins brownish.
Legs: Thighs (femora) black with wide yellow tips; underside fringed with dense white hair. Shins (tibiae) bright yellow with faint brownish-red patches. Feet yellow, hind foot 1st segment brown, rest orange-brown.
Abdomen: Black with bright yellow stripes all entire across segments, except the first. Segment 2 widest. Segment 3 and 4 stripes are narrower than the dark area below the stripe. Underside of abdomen mostly yellow. Tip as wide as long, notched with dense erect hair.

Similar Species: N. imbricata has wide reddish lower margins on abdomen.

Size: Female 9.5 to 12 mm Male 8.5 to 11.5 mm

Habitat: Forest edges.

Food: Wild Strawberry and other spring flowers. Larvae feed on food stored by Mining Bees Andrena.

Flight Time: April to June

Life Cycle: Females steal into Mining Bee Andrena nests to lay their eggs.

Comments: Essex County – photos. Peel County – per photos. Also in Southern Michigan – Livingston County.

For more information on synonyms, references and type specimens see next page